Study of spatial patterns in the human and physical world, resources, distribution, and changes of these elements
Location defined with latitude and longitude or a distance.
Parallel of latitude
A circle that joins places of the same latitude.
How far north or south a place is from the equator, 90 degrees max.
How far east of west from the prime meridian a place is. 180 degrees max.
Meridians of longitude
Lines joining places of the same longitude
Friction of distance
Relative measures of time-distance and cost-distance to travel from one place to another.
Geographic Information System (GIS)
combine maps and aerial and satellite images with data relevant to the area.
Learned collective behavior
Map - more area, less detail. 1:1,000,000
Map - less area, more detail. 1:24,000
Functional cultural region
Region defined to serve a function
Region that is perceived to exist by its inhabitants.
Center of innovation.
Place where a flow begins, intersects, or ends.
Global choke point
A point at which surface transportation routes are vulerable to the control of a country.
The population numbers per unit of cultivable land
Theoretical model of stages that shows changes over time.
An imagined community where people believe to share common cultural traits or features, tied to a specific area of land.
The desire of a nation to have its own self-governing country.
The study of spatial variations in cultural features, such as material traits, social structures, and belief systems.
Study of population structure and change.
Stage 1 of Demographic Transition Theory
Pre industrial stage. High birth rates and high death rates. 0 pop. growth
Stage 2 of Demographic Transition Theory
Early industrial stage. High birth rates and low death rates. population explodes
Stage 3 of Demographic Transition Theory
Late industrial stage. Low birth rates and low death rates. large urban pop. growth slows down
Stage 4 of Demographic Transition Theory
Post industrial stage. Low birth rates and low death rates. 0 growth, stable or decline.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, apart of the United Nations (NGO)
European Nations - economic and trade org to unite European nations
Non-government organization (NATO, EU, DR)
Language set: Germanic (English, German), Romance (Spanish, Italian, French), Slavick (Ukraine, Russian, Polish)
A world-scale ecosystem type, such as tropical rin forest or savanna grassland.
Have high temps throughout the year and have short winters.
Seasonal temp contrasts between summer and winter.
Religious beliefs, worship inatimate objects.
Language set: Chinese, Thai, Vietnamese.
Language set: Japanese, Korean, Mongolic, Turick, Uralic.
Language set: Arabic, Hebrew
Language set: Swahiti, Zimbabwe
Language set: Polynesian, Malaysian
The practice of individuals and coproations owning businesses and keeping profits.
The practice of extending the rule of an empire over foreign lands.
Extermination of people of a specific group.
Destruction of the productive capacity of an area of land.
Gas that forms a protective shield in the upper atmosphere, intercepts harmful rays from the sun.
The carbon gases humans create by burning oil, coal, and gas will add to the gases that trap solar energy in the lower atmosphere - may enhance the greenhouse effect and natural climate warming.
When heat rays are absorbed in the lower atmosphere by water vapor and carbon gases, they raise the temperature of the air.
Where rivers meet the seas.
Mountain range in Switzerland.
Mountain range between Spain and France
Mountain range in Slavakia and Hungary
Climate type A
Tropical climate near the equator
Climate type B
Arid climate, dry and hot
Climate type C
Temperate climate - midlatitude - "messothermal"
Climate type D
Continental climate - "microthermal" - temp extremes
Climate type E
Climate type H
Highlands - mountains Climate
Formal Cultural Region
Region with common charateristics.
The enforcement of Russian minorites to become more Russian.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union)
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Formed in 91' from 11 countries that came from the Soviet Union collapse. Economic union that meets and understands it's economic needs.
Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova.
Southern Caucasus countries
Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan.
Russian government sets quotas favoring heavy industry over production of consumer goods.
Russian government decides what is produced in contrast to "supply and demand" in a capitalist economy.
Scandinavian Pen. - Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Greenland.
Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece.
Governance by the Communist Party, actively running the political, social, and economic activies of the people.
The idea that differing nations can cooperate so closely for their mutual benefit that they can share the same government, economy, social policies, and military.
Local people desiring less rule from their national governments and seeking greater authority in governing themselves.
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