Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Content for first test.


Study of spatial patterns in the human and physical world, resources, distribution, and changes of these elements

Absolute location

Location defined with latitude and longitude or a distance.

Parallel of latitude

A circle that joins places of the same latitude.


How far north or south a place is from the equator, 90 degrees max.


How far east of west from the prime meridian a place is. 180 degrees max.

Meridians of longitude

Lines joining places of the same longitude

Friction of distance

Relative measures of time-distance and cost-distance to travel from one place to another.

Geographic Information System (GIS)

combine maps and aerial and satellite images with data relevant to the area.


Learned collective behavior

Small scale

Map - more area, less detail. 1:1,000,000

Large scale

Map - less area, more detail. 1:24,000

Functional cultural region

Region defined to serve a function

Vernacular region

Region that is perceived to exist by its inhabitants.


Center of innovation.


Place where a flow begins, intersects, or ends.

Global choke point

A point at which surface transportation routes are vulerable to the control of a country.

Physiological density

The population numbers per unit of cultivable land

Demographic transition

Theoretical model of stages that shows changes over time.


An imagined community where people believe to share common cultural traits or features, tied to a specific area of land.


The desire of a nation to have its own self-governing country.

Cultural geopgraphy

The study of spatial variations in cultural features, such as material traits, social structures, and belief systems.


Study of population structure and change.

Stage 1 of Demographic Transition Theory

Pre industrial stage. High birth rates and high death rates. 0 pop. growth

Stage 2 of Demographic Transition Theory

Early industrial stage. High birth rates and low death rates. population explodes

Stage 3 of Demographic Transition Theory

Late industrial stage. Low birth rates and low death rates. large urban pop. growth slows down

Stage 4 of Demographic Transition Theory

Post industrial stage. Low birth rates and low death rates. 0 growth, stable or decline.


North Atlantic Treaty Organization, apart of the United Nations (NGO)


European Nations - economic and trade org to unite European nations


Non-government organization (NATO, EU, DR)


Language set: Germanic (English, German), Romance (Spanish, Italian, French), Slavick (Ukraine, Russian, Polish)


A world-scale ecosystem type, such as tropical rin forest or savanna grassland.

Tropical climate

Have high temps throughout the year and have short winters.

Midlatitude climate

Seasonal temp contrasts between summer and winter.

Shaminism (Animism)

Religious beliefs, worship inatimate objects.


Language set: Chinese, Thai, Vietnamese.


Language set: Japanese, Korean, Mongolic, Turick, Uralic.


Language set: Arabic, Hebrew


Language set: Swahiti, Zimbabwe


Language set: Polynesian, Malaysian


The practice of individuals and coproations owning businesses and keeping profits.


The practice of extending the rule of an empire over foreign lands.


Extermination of people of a specific group.


Destruction of the productive capacity of an area of land.


Gas that forms a protective shield in the upper atmosphere, intercepts harmful rays from the sun.

Global Warming

The carbon gases humans create by burning oil, coal, and gas will add to the gases that trap solar energy in the lower atmosphere - may enhance the greenhouse effect and natural climate warming.

Greenhouse Effect

When heat rays are absorbed in the lower atmosphere by water vapor and carbon gases, they raise the temperature of the air.


Where rivers meet the seas.


Mountain range in Switzerland.


Mountain range between Spain and France


Mountain range in Slavakia and Hungary

Climate type A

Tropical climate near the equator

Climate type B

Arid climate, dry and hot

Climate type C

Temperate climate - midlatitude - "messothermal"

Climate type D

Continental climate - "microthermal" - temp extremes

Climate type E

Polar climate

Climate type H

Highlands - mountains Climate

Formal Cultural Region

Region with common charateristics.


The enforcement of Russian minorites to become more Russian.


Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union)

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

Formed in 91' from 11 countries that came from the Soviet Union collapse. Economic union that meets and understands it's economic needs.

Slavic countries

Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova.

Southern Caucasus countries

Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan.

Command Economy

Russian government sets quotas favoring heavy industry over production of consumer goods.

Central Planning

Russian government decides what is produced in contrast to "supply and demand" in a capitalist economy.

Northern Europe

Scandinavian Pen. - Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Greenland.

Mediterranean Europe

Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece.

State socialism

Governance by the Communist Party, actively running the political, social, and economic activies of the people.


The idea that differing nations can cooperate so closely for their mutual benefit that they can share the same government, economy, social policies, and military.


Local people desiring less rule from their national governments and seeking greater authority in governing themselves.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording