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Exam 2: 18- Digestion
Terms in this set (23)
It is not absolutely necessary to chew your food. However if you don't, how will digestion be affected?
1. Digestion of proteins will be less efficient
2. Saliva will not be secreted which will actually improve or increase digestion processes in the stomach.
3. Digestion does not begin until the stomach anyway so it will not be affected.
4. Little if any carbohydrate digestion will occur until the bolus reaches the small intestine
digestion of proteins will be less efficient, little if any carbohydrate digestion will occur until the bolus reaches the small intestine
Prilosec is a drug that inhibits cells that release gastric acid. One important side effect is ___ .
1. Vitamin B-12 deficiency leading to anemia.
2. Ulcers from excess pepsin without normal buffering agents in mucous.
3. Ulcers from excess HCl because the normal buffers are not present along the mucosal layer.
4. Poor protein digestion.
vitamin B-12 deficiency leading to anemia, poor protein digestion
Which is a function of the brush border of the small intestine?
1. Like rugae in the stomach, these folds allow the intestine to expand.
2. They are glands that secrete brush border enzymes into the lumen of the intestine
3. These and villi allow the surface area of the small intestine to be the size of a tennis court.
4. They capture small food particles for endocytosis using IgA.
these and villi allow the surface area of the small intestine to be the size of a tennis court
Which region of the large intestine stores feces until it is eliminated by the defecation reflex?
What is the main function of the large intestine?
Secretion of digestive enzymes and water to form chyme.
Chemical and mechanical digestion.
Absorption of nutrients, vitamins and production of nutrient storage molecules.
Absorption of salts and water to concentrate chyme
Absorption of salts and water to concentration chyme
What is the function of the pyloric sphincter?
1. Closes off the bottom of the stomach to regulate chyme movement into the small intestine.
2. Secretes enzymes and acids into the lumen of the stomach.
3. Houses mucus secreting cells in the small intestine.
4. Prevents the movement of stomach contents back into the esophagus.
Closes off the bottom of the stomach to regulate chyme movement into the small intestine
The ___ cells of mucosal layer of the stomach secrete pepsinogen, an inactive form of the enzyme pepsin.
Where does most nutrient absorption occur?
Stomach and large intestine.
Enteroendocrine cells have an important function in the stomach. They _.
1. are the source of stem cells that differentiate into other mucosal cells of the stomach
2. secrete water and salts forming chyme in the stomach
3. secrete hormones and paracrines that regulate digestion
4. secrete mucous to protect the gastric pit
secrete hormone and paracrine that regulate digestion
Which of the following is NOT a function of the digestive system?
Production of energy storage molecules.
Mechanical digestion of food
Chemical digestion of food
Absorption of water and nutrients
production of energy storage molecules
The lumen of the stomach is lined with an epithelial layer called _
The mucosal layer
The musclular or muscularis layer
the mucosal layer (mucosa, submucosa, muscular, serosa)
What causes a bolus to move down the esophagus?
Reflexes controlling peristalsis.
The swallowing reflex followed by gravity
Reflexes controlling peristalsis
Where does chemical digestion begin?
Stomach with gastric secretions
Small intestine with bile.
Mouth with saliva
Mouth with mastication
Mouth with saliva
The 'Alkaline tide' is due to an increase in bicarbonate entering blood at the stomach. What is the source of the alkaline?
1. Bicarbonate from the production of HCl in Parietal cells
2. HCl moved from the lumen of the stomach into the chief cell then into the blood.
3. Carbonic anhydrase combines bicarbonate and Cl- to form bicarbonate in the stomach, then transports it into the blood.
bicarbonate from the production of HCl in parietal cells
The ___ cells of the __ secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.
Chief - gastric pits of the stomach
Parietal - mucosal layer of the stomach
Mucuous - mucosal layer of the small intestine
Lymph - lymphatic system
Mucuous- mucosal layer of the small intestine
When is food called a bolus?
After mastication and mixing with saliva.
When food enters the intestine.
After mixing with gastric secretions
When it enters the mouth
after mastication and mixing with saliva
What is the difference between chyme and a bolus?
1. Chyme is food after it mixes with rugae, a bolus is food after it is chewed.
2. A bolus is food after it has been chewed, chime is this bolus after it has been mixed with saliva.
3. A bolus contains food and saliva, chyme adds stomach secretions
a bolus contains food and saliva, chyme adds stomach secretions
The formation of HCl occurs in the lumen of the stomach, after leaving an "HCl" secreting cell. What is the source of the H+?
1. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes H+ and bicarbonate formation from water and CO2.
2. H+ leaves blood by an H/K pump, diffuses across the apical membrane and then binds with Cl-
3. An H+ / Cl- antiporter on the basolateral membrane moves H+ from blood into the lumen.
4. H+ comes from gastric secretions elsewhere in the stomach
carbonic anhydrase catalyzes H+ and bicarbonate formation from water and CO2
Most absorbed nutrients pass from the __ to the ___.
1. Stomach - lymph then to blood.
2. Small intestine - liver and gall bladder
3. Small intestine - lymph and blood systems.
4. Stomach - blood
small intestine- lymph and blood systems
What is the function of the mucus secretions from the stomach onto the mucosal layer?
1. Initiates digestion of carbohydrates and lipids.
2. Initiates digestion of lipids and proteins.
3. Holds food particles so that they can come into contact with enzymes.
4. Protect stomach from enzymes and acids.
protect stomach from enzymes and acids
What is the function of the rugae of the stomach?
1. Secretes HCl and pepsinogen
2. Allows expansion.
4. Contracts to close the cardiac sphincter at the top of the stomach.
What is the main function of the stomach?
1. Chemical and mechanical digestion.
2. Secretion of digestive enzymes and water to form chyme.
3. Absorption of nutrients, vitamins and production of nutrient storage molecules.
4. Secrete intrinsic factor and absorption of vitamin B12
chemical and mechanical digestion
Fluids and chemicals to aid digestion are secreted into the small intestine by _
1. The jejunum and ilium
2. The liver and gall bladder, and pancreas.
3. The pancreas and stomach.
4. The lymph system
the liver and gallbladder, and pancreas
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