Terms in this set (41)
waves advance in a backward-rotating, elliptical motion
The large left step in the San Andreas fault in the Los Angeles area causes compressive ruptures along east-west-oriented faults as in the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 Northridge events
infrequent and large
Constraining bends in large strike-slip faults commonly 'lock up'; thus, movements there tend
Velocities for waves in granite are about 5.5 to 6 km/sec, but in water they slow to 1.5
Which part of the Earth is denser? The crust, mantle, or inner core?
Which state has the lowest earthquake risk?
Which of the types of energy played no part in transforming the Earth in its early history?
At present, after subtracting deaths from births, world population increases 1.2 percent per
year for a doubling time of
After lava cools below what point of about 550◦C do atoms in iron-bearing minerals become
magnetized in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field at that time and place
rigid outermost layer of the Earth
The Great Basin region between the eastern Sierra Nevada in California and the Wasatch
Mountains in Utah has expanded in what direction due to a in response to plate tectonic forces
On 3 November 2002, a large earthquake occurred in what state? Because of its similarity to the
1857 Fort Tejon earthquake on the San Andreas fault, this event has been compared to the
much-anticipated 'Big One' in Southern California
reflectivity of the Earth's surface
pull apart basin and strike slip motion
Dead Sea and the Sea of Galilee are examples of what two tectonic plate motions?
Ages of bedrock formations match across the Atlantic Ocean
Before people understood plate tectonics, what evidence led some scientists to believe in continental drift?
With compressional forces, the hanging wall moves upward relative to the footwall; this type of
fault is referred to as what?
What type of fault occurs when the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall?
near the rift valleys of the mid-ocean ridges
The youngest seafloor rocks are found where?
when the wave frequency matches the natural body
When does a large body resonate?
basalt on top of peridotite
What does the lithosphere consists of?
They are rigid
What characteristics of the lithosphere plates distinguish them from deeper Earth materials?
What part of Earth was not produced by the plate tectonics?
Rayleigh and Love
When Earth shakes, it releases energy in seismic waves, some of which pass through the whole body of the planet (body waves like P and S-waves) and some of which propagate only near the surface such as what two types of waves?
it commonly generates a swarm of small earthquakes referred to as harmonic tremors
What happens when magma is on the move at shallow depths?
What is a swarm of small earthquakes?
Today, North America has several small to medium-sized plates subducting beneath which of its margins?
This style of thought seeks to understand the natural laws and processes active today, and then uses this knowledge to read Earth's history recorded in rocks and fossils
Earthquake-induced ground motions cause building to sway at certain periods. The taller the structure, the shorter or longer its period?
A common example of a divergent boundary is what?
faults on which the dominant forces are extensional are recognized by the separation of the pulled-apart rock layers in a zone of omission. What type of fault is this?
granite/ 30 to 60 km thick
What does the continental crust consist of and how thick is it?
earthquakes, tsunamis, and hurricanes
During the last half of the 20th century, what three natural disasters account for majority of deaths?
an inclined plane of deep earthquakes
a descending slab of oceanic lithosphere is defined by what?
What type of fault is formed when a lithospheric plate slides past another lithospheric plate? Example is the San Andreas fault
mostly east-west oriented thrust faults
A class of active faults that is created by southern California pushing into the 'Big Bend' of the San Andreas fault are most what kinds of faults moving in what direction?
Juan de Fuca
Several recent earthquakes in Washington's Puget Sound region were caused by movement of which subducting plate?
In order to locate epicenters using seismograms there needs to be a minimum of how many recording stations?
Frequency of a wave
What is the number of waves passing a given point per unit time?
The lithosphere moves over a mantle hotspot causing melting to form basal magma
How is the magma formed that feeds the volcanoes in Hawaii?
The point on the Earth's surface directly above the point where the fault first ruptured is called what?
Of the total solar energy that reaches Earth, about what fraction is used to evaporate water into the atmosphere?
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