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AP Biology unit 3 key terms
Terms in this set (40)
A molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule; another name for a signaling molecule
nonspecific (innate) immune response
Cells can carry these out without learning; rapid and automatic
A protein that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody; substance that triggers an immune response; a foreign substance (usually a protein)
proteins made by the plasma cells in response toa a specific antigen; a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
humoral response (antibody-mediated response)
immunity conferred to an individual through the activity of B cells and their offspring, which produce circulating antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance and recognize the substance upon renewed exposure; involves most cells and responds to antigens or pathogens that are circulating in the lymph or blood
cell-mediated immune response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of cytotoxic T cells, which defend against infected cells.
Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.
General term for lymphocytes that are responsible for immunological memory and protective immunity.
That region of antibodies that varies from one antibody to another even within one class
Clumping of microorganisms or blood cells, typically due to an antigen-antibody interaction.
secondary immune response
Immune response after the body has already been exposed to a specific antigen. Response is faster, of greater magnitude, and more prolonged.
Protien based hormones
Most hormones are this. These hormones attach to extracellular membrane receptors and trigger the start of a signal transduction pathway in the target cell
lipid based hormones
enter the cell and directly influence the DNA transcriptions and RNA translation
- Lipids are soluble in cell membrane
- Results: synthesis of protein
- Dock on the inside of the cell
- Receptors are located in the nucleus of target cell
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
negative feedback loop
A feedback loop that causes a system to change in the opposite direction from which it is moving
positive feedback loop
Causes a system to change further in the same direction.
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
small pea-like organs that regulate calcium and phosphate balance in blood, bones, and other tissues
Regulates the level of sugar in the blood
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
An immune organ located near the heart. The thymus is the site of T cell maturation and is larger in children and adolescents.
Glands that produce the egg cells and hormones
central nervous system
peripheral nervous system
pertaining to the body
controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands; involuntary
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
A threadlike extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body.
a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next
The endpoint of a neuron where neurotransmitters are stored
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell
The process during the action potential when sodium is rushing into the cell causing the interior to become more positive.
A relatively direct connection between a sensory neuron and a motor neuron that allows an extremely rapid response to a stimulus, often without conscious brain involvement.
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