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Sociology Final

ASU Beebe. Term II 2010. Tammy Jolley. Principles of Sociology.
STUDY
PLAY
If you were trying to measure the social class of people, you would have to keep in mind that...
it is necessary to specify exactly what you are measuring
U.S. sociologist who pointed out manifest funtions and latent functions of social patterns...
Merton
Social-conflict approach is sometimes criticized for...
being clearly political
A category of people with a higher suicide rate typically has...
lower social integration
Social-conflict approach draws attention to...
patterns of social inequality
What illustrates/examplifies a micro-level focus?
Two passengers on an airplane getting to know one another
Term for basic image of society that guides thinking and research...
theoretical approach
In his study of prison behavior, Phillip Zimbardo was trying to learn...
if prisons themselves create violence
Small # of people used to represent an entire population...
sample
C. Wright Mills pointed out that sociological awareness tends to be more widespread...
in times of social crisis
Refers to relatively stable patterns of social behavior...
social structure
Sociology differs from earlier philosophy by focusing on...
How society typically operates
Spencer described human societyas having much in common with...
the human body
What summarizes the focus of the symbolic-interaction approach...
How do people experience society?
The recognized and intended consequences of a social pattern are...
manifest functions
Keeping young people off the streets would be a ___________ function of sports
Latent function
The structural-functional approach helps us to:
Understand what makes society "tick"
Social-conflict approach that deals with inequality between women and men?
Feminism and the gender-conflict approach`
Sociologist who called on his colleagues to be value free...
Max Weber
Subculture
Culture patterns that set apart a segment of a society's population
Today's student are more concerned with __________ then they were in 1960
Making money
Standards by which people who share a culture define what is desireable, good, and beautiful
Values
First type of society to generate a material surplus
Horticultural & Pastoral
Distinction between high culture and pop culture is based mostly on...
Social standing of the people who display the cultural pattern
Ethnocentrism
juddging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
U.S. sociologist who described the difference between folkways and mores
Sumner
Judging any other culture using its own standards
Cultural relativism
Culture acts as a constraint on human freedom because...
Much culture is a habit, and repeated again and again
"Looking-glass self"
People see themselves how they think others see them
Children learn to take the role of others
Significant others
Contribution of schooling to the socialization process
exposing children to peope whose background differ from their own
Peer group differs from the family in that...
No parental supervision
Agesim means...
discrimination against old people
Focus of Kohlberg
Moral reasoning
The case of Anna and Genie provides strong evidence that...
Social experience has a crucial role in forming human personality
Mead would agree that your _______ may change after a major change such as winning the lottery, or becoming famous...
Self
Single most important factor in being defined as an adult
Completion of school
Erikson's view of socialization
Personality develops over the entire life course in patterned ways
Looking at childhood in a global perspective...
Rich societies prolong childhood much longer
Elderly people in the U.S....
have less poverty than average
Developed "dramaturgical analysis"...
Goffman
Viewed as master status...
Physical or mental disability
Helping another to "save face", or avoid embarrasment
Tact
Behavior people expect from someone holding a particular status
Role
Use of costumess, props, tone of voice to convey information are elements of a...
Performance
Role set refers to a number of rules attached to...
a single status
Thomas theoreum state that situations defined as real are...
Real in their consequences
Social position achieved at birth or otherwise aquired involuntarily
Ascribe status
Opposing trends
McDonald's
Max Weber argued that formal organization have the ability to...
alienate people from within them
2 or more people who identify and interect
Social group
Not a characteristic of a secondary group
Warm, personal interaction
Soloman Asch
group pressure
Small group whose members share personal and enduring relationships...
Primary group
Simmels understanding of the Dyad...
less stable than groups with more members
Type of leadership that calls for more distant relationship with members...
Insturmental
McDonaldization
ATM's, Climate controlled malls, chain franchises
As bearaucract spread through the U.S. privacy has become...
threatened more than ever before
Illustrates group think...
group that seeks consensus and discourages groups from speeking freely.
Assembled students at a graduation cermony...
Secondary group
Iron Law of Oligrachy...
The few will always rule the many
Arrest for serious crime...
is higher among lower class people
A person who gets rich by commiting fraud while working in a bank is an example of...
innovation
Refers to a powerful and negative lavel that changes a persons self-concept and social identity...
stigma
Crime is composed of what two elements...
The Act, and Criminal Intent
What describe sthe behavior of a low paind, yet rigidly conforming bank teller...
Ritualism
Sutherland states that white-collar crime is usually settled in...
civil, rather than criminal court
Basic idea behind labeling theory...
Deviance arises not so much by what people do, but how others respond
Hate crime...
crime motivated by racial or other bias
Describes people including alcohol and drug addicts who "drop out"...
Retreatists
Legal term meaning "guilty mind"
Mens rea
Criminal recidivism...
subsequent offenses by a person who has been previously convicted.
Describes a radical who rejects...
rebelli8on
Medicalization of deviance...
Theft is compulsize, drinkning excessively is alcoholism
The value of psychological theories of deviance is limited b/c
most people who commit crimes have "normal" personalities
Durkeim's basic insight is that deviance is a...
normal element of social organization
Differential association theoryindicated that the amount of contact...
a person has with with others who encourage or discourage the behavior in question
Income inequality is greatest in which region?
Latin America
Refers to upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents.
Intergenerational mobility
2/3 of the poor population in the U.S. are...
white
What share of the richest people in the U.S. achieved their wealth from inheritance
1/3
What percentage of the U.S. is counted as officially poor?
12.3%
Globalization of the economy has hurt whom?
Factory workers
Social stratification refers to...
society ranking people in a hierarchy
In what share of the worls societies do we find stratification...
All of them
"Meritocracy" refers to social stratification...
based entirely on personal merit
In agrarian societies, which dimension of social inequality has the greatest importanct?
Social prestige or honor
Belif that social inequality if fair b/c social position reflects talent and effort...
class system
Jill buys a very expensive car to impress her friends
Conspicuous consumption
The wealthiest 1% of the rich families in the U.S. control which percent of privately held wealth?
35%
Gena and Mark are married and have a relatively low social standing. We would expect them to...
engage in different everyday activities
Global region that has seen the greatest reduction of poverty...
Asia
Middle-income nations typical per capita range...
$2,500 - $10,000
Modernization thoery claims that main causes of poverty include...
traditional culture and lack of advanced technology
How many people in the world die each year from hunger...
15 million
Dependency theory claims that poor nations...
were underdeveloped by colonialism
Most serious problem os increasing poverty...
Africa
In poor countries, the disadvantages poor women face relative to men are:
greater than in rich countries
The text explains that slavery...
is still found in Africa, Middle East, and Asian low-income nations
Type of slavery in which employers hold workers by paying them too little to cover their debts...
Debt bondage
Las Colonias
settlement along Texas-Mexico border. Very poor
Modernization theory is more concerned with______. Dependancy theory is more concerned with______
Production of wealth, distribution of wealth
Povery in low income nation is...
more widespread and severe
Absolute poverty...
lack of resources that if life-threatening
Colonialism occurs when...
some nations enrich themselves through economic and political control of other nations
In the poorest country, roughly half of the children die before they reach the age of...
10
1/2 of the world stree children are found in...
Latin America
Attitudes and activiteis societies link to members of a certain sex...
gender roles
Point of describing gender in Israeli kibutzin...
to show that cultures define gender in different ways
Women have served in the U.S. armed forces since...
Colonial times
Beauty myth refers to the idea that...
women learn to measure their important in terms of their physical appearance
Comparable worth...
the idea that women should be paid as much as men
the share of married couples in the U.S. that depend on 2 incomes
more than 50%
Gender refers to..
personal traits and social positions
Cost of sexism for men include...
engaging in many high-risk behaviors
"Pink collar" work refers to what types of jobs?
Administrative support
What % of times does a rape victim know the attacker?
90%
Genital mutilation is most common in...
Africa
Institutional prejudice & discrimination refers to...
bias built into the operatio of our societies instituions
Race
socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits
People of Hispanic ancestry represent about what share of the U.S. population...
14.8%
Racism
belief that one one racial category is superior to another
physical and social speration of groups of people
segregation
minirity is defined as a category of people who...
are different in some visible way and socially disadvantaged
Based on Scapegoat theory, you would conclude that prejudice is caused by...
frustration among people who are disadvantaged themselves
Repsresent a culture theory of prejudice
Bogardu's research on social distance
Multiculturalists oppose the goal of assimilation because...
it implies that minorities are the ones that need to change
Sociologist who contributed to a symbolic-interaction analysis of religion...
Peter Berget
Animism is the belief that...
everything in the worl is alive and able to affect us
All of the worlds religions are...
patriarchal
Amish people are an example of a...
sect
Not a trait of religious fundamentalism...
accepting religious pluralism
tracing family ties only through women
matrilineal descent
group of people who break away from some established religious organization...
sect