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Genetics Test 2
Terms in this set (69)
Catabolic repression of the lac operon by glucose actually works through
A tRNA that recognizes the stop codon UAA _________.
Does not exist
What are the three basic steps of transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Initiation, elongation, termination
Okazaki fragments are removed by __________ and the last phosphodiester bond is made by __________
DNA polymerase I, DNA ligase
DNA polymerase I contains ___________ activity to ____________ nucleotides in the Okazaki fragment, and ____________ activity to ___________ an incorrectly added nucleotide
5'-3' exonuclease, remove, 3'-5' exonuclease, remove
The ___________ sugar phosphate backbone of a nucleic acid is held together by ____________ bonds
____________ ____________ interact with the ____________ ___________ terminal domain of the RNA polymerase to protect the 5' end of a eukaryotic mRNA, during its precarious journey to the cytoplasm.
Capping enzymes, phosphorylated carboxy
___________ factors localize RNA polymerase in bacteria, while ____________ localizes RNA polymerase in eukaryotes
What type of bonds hold alpha helical structures together in a protein?
Hydrogen bonds between amino acids
Due to _________ _________ tRNA(s) can pair or hydrogen bond with ___________ codon(s)
Wobble 1, up to 3
If bacteria are partial diploids of genotype I+ P+ O+ Z+ Y+ / I- P+ O^c Z- Y+ will the structural genes Z and Y be expressed?
Expression of Z is inducible, expression of Y is constitutive
Which of the following is not true about A/T rich regions in a DNA double helix?
They are harder to replicate than G/C rich regions
How many amino acids are encoded in this partial mRNA AUGCCCGAAUUGAUUAG
If a double-stranded DNA molecule contains 30% Adenine, how much Guanine does it contain?
What targets a protein for degradation?
It's a good thing the 2' carbon is hydroxylated in RNA. This hydroxyl group is needed to
Complete a transesterification reaction during splicing in eukaryotes
If a DNA template strand is 3' ATGAGCTGAC 5', what is the sequence of the transcribed mRNA?
5' UACUCGACUG 3'
Transcription can terminate in prokaryotes if _____________
A string of UUUUUs is transcribed into the mRNA destabilizing the complex, and then the polymerase backs into a CG hairpin and the transcription complex falls apart
How is transcription similar to replication?
The template is read from 3' to 5'
If an Adenine hydrogen bonded with a Guanine the diameter of the DNA double helix would be _____________
The ___________ end of a protein is ____________ with the __________ end of the mRNA that encodes it
Amino, colinear, 5'
Telomerase contains a ____________ that acts as a template to add ______________ to the ends of chromosomes
Short RNA, several hundred repeats
The structure of RNA differs from DNA in that ___________
Uracil replaces thymine and the 2' carbon contains a hydroxyl group
As _____ uncoils the double helix at the replication fork, ____ relieves the supercoiling that builds up in the front of the replication fork
Which of the following enzymes or enzyme complexes is not important for mRNA processing
Which of the following can function as an effector?
Consider bacterial partial diploids of genotype I^s P+ O+ Z- Y- / F+ I- P- O^c Z+ Y- Will the structural genes Z and Y be expressed
No, the genes will not be transcribed
What happens when charged amino acids are bounds to the A and P sites in a ribosome?
A peptide bond is formed
Which enzyme does not need a template?
What is a possible function of a gene that does not encode a protein?
All of the other answers are possible functions of a gene that does not encode a protein (encodes tRNA, snRNA, microRNA)
Transcription and translation are coupled in _____________
What would we expect to find in an E. coli cell whose environment contains lactose but no glucose?
All answers are true
The Shine-Delgamo sequence ________________
Helps position the ribosome in prokaryotic translation
DNA replication results in
Two sister chromatids in a eukaryote
Which of the following is not true about attenuation?
It only regulates the trp operon
Which mixture of Streptococcus pneumoniae, when injected into mice, does not kill them?
Heat killed S-strain extract trated with DNAse, mixed with R strain
In positive regulation an ____________ is ____________ to induce transcription, while in negative regulation a ____________ is _____________ to induce transcription
Activator, bound, repressor, removed
There are ______________ aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, but _____________ tRNAs
In a replication bubble, there are ______________ strands that are headed ______________ the ______________
2 leading, towards, replication fork
Although very different in molecular function, miRNAs in eukaryotes, and sigma factors in prokaryotes
Each regulate several target genes
What was the conclusion of the pulse-chase experiment in eukaryotic cells?
RNA is the intermediate between DNA and protein
The decoding center and the peptidyl-transferase center in the ribosome are composed of
Watson and Crick discovered the structure of the DNA double helix, they immediately noticed that the structure itself suggested the _____________ mode of replication
In eukaryotes, different proteins can be produced from the same gene by
Which polymerase does not require a template strand?
During ____________ processing, a cap is added to the ___________ end of the mRNA, and a ____________ is added to the ______________ end
Cotranscriptional, 5', poly A tail, 3'
How does a ribosome know where to position itself to start translation in a eukaryote?
It starts to assemble at the 5' cap on the mRNA and starts scanning for AUG
What happens when bacteria are incubated on arabinose as the only carbon source?
Arabinose is bound to AraC protein at the ara I regulatory site, activating transcription
In a replicating bacterial chromosome, there are _____________ replication forks moving _______________ one another
2, away from
In the classic Hershey-Chase experiment in which it was shown that the DNA entered the E. coli cells after infection with T2 bacteriophage, the DNA was labeled with radioactive ____________.
Within a nucleotide, a nitrogen base (A,T,G or C) is attached to the __________ of the deoxyribose.
The Meselson-Stahl centrifugation experiment indicated that DNA replication is __________.
If the GC content of a DNA molecule is 40%, what is the percentage of Thymine (T) residues?
Uracil is a _________________ that complementary base pairs with __________________.
The structure shown above contains a _______ sugar attached to a __________ nitrogen base.
During DNA replication, the gyrase enzyme, which is kind of topoisomerase, ______________________________.
removes twists in supercoiled DNA
During replication, the enzyme that is required for joining DNA fragments on the lagging strand is called ______________.
For the DNA double helix shown below, would it matter if the DNA is transcribed from right to left (top strand) or left to right (bottom strand)?
Yes, the mRNA sequences will be different.
Within a ribonucleotide or nucleotide, a phosphate group is attached to the __________ of the ribose or deoxyribose.
In what cellular compartment are introns removed from pre-mRNA to make mature mRNA?
Pulse-chase experiments provided evidence that:
RNA is an information-transfer intermediary between DNA and protein.
These functional RNAs act post transcriptionally to regulate translation of specific mRNAs.
micro RNAs (miRNAs)
The -10 and the -35 boxes found in bacterial gene promoters function to:
localize RNA polymerase at a gene's transcription start site.
In eukaryotic species, three separate RNA polymerases transcribe different categories of genes. RNA polymerase III is known to primarily transcribe:
transfer RNAs and small nuclear RNAs.
A key characteristic of bacterial RNAs that is not observed with eukaryotic RNAs is that:
transcription is linked to translation.
The carboxyl tail domain of RNA polymerase II plays a key role in:
•addition of a poly(A) tail at the 3′ end of a transcript
•capping of the 5′ end of a new transcript
•recruiting capping enzymes to the RNA polymerase enzyme.
•splicing of introns out of RNA transcripts.
Which of the following is/are role(s) of the 5′ cap?
The promote the efficiency of translation and protects the RNA from degradation.
The role of most microRNAs within a eukaryotic cell is to
repress the expression of genes by destroying mRNAs.
siRNAs used in RNAi are distinct from microRNAs (miRNAs) in that siRNAs:
are made in the laboratory to target one gene
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