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135 terms

Final Exam (Jennifer N) Vocabulary Review

Chemical formula
shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance
Valence electrons
electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element's atoms
Electron Dot Structure
A diagram tha tshows valence electrons as dots
Octet Rule
In forming compounds, atoms tend to react so as to acquire the stable electron configuration of a noble gas
Halide ion
a negative ion formed when a halogen atom gains an electron
Formula Unit
the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound
Ionic bonds
the electrostatic attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together
Coordination Number
the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal
metallic bonds
the attraction of free-floating valence electrosn for positively charged metal ions
Ionic compounds
compounds composed of cations and anions
a mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal
negatively charged ions
positively charged ions
process by which hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller molecules
fossil fuel containing straight and branched chain alkanes
process by which petroleum is separated into fractions
Brown coal, consisting of about 50% carbon
Hard coal, which is high in carbon content
hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon triple bonds
Group of atoms that takes the place of hydrogen in a parent hydrocarbon
cis configuration
Geometric isomer with substituted groups on the same side of the double bond
homologous series
series of compounds related by a constant increment of change
another name for an aromatic hydrocarbon
molecules that differ in the arrangement of atoms in space
saturated compounds
organic compounds that contain the maiximum number of hydrogen atoms per carbon atom
cyclic hydrocarbons
organic compounds that contain hydrocarbon rings
when two or more equally valid structures can be drawn for a molecule
phenyl group
name given to a benzene ring when it is a substituent
aromatic compounds
group of hydrocarbons that contain a benzene ring or a ring with bonding like that of benzene
compounds that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures
structural isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formula but the atoms are joined in a different order
asymmetric carbon
a carbon with four different groups attached
geometric isomers
isomers that differ in the concentration of groups around a double bond
trans configuration
configuration of teh substituted groups on opposite sides of the double bond
optical isomers
pairs of molecules that differ only in the way four different groups are arranged around a central carbon atom
contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond
unsaturated compounds
organic compounds that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds
straight chain alkanes
organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen
branched chain alkanes
alkanes that contain one or more alkyl substituents
alkyl group
a hydrocarbon substituent
hydrocarbons that contain only single covalent bonds
an electrically neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
Molecular Compound
compound composed of molecules
Covalent Bond
joins atoms held together by sharing electrons
Diatomic molecule
a molecule composed of two atoms
Molecular formula
shows the kinds and numbers present in a molecule of a compound
Single Covalent Bond
a chemical bond in which only one pair of electrons is shared by two bonded atoms
Structural formula
a chemical formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion
bond dissociation energy
the amount of energy required to break a covalent bond between atoms
Polyatomic ion
a tightly bound group of atoms taht has a positive or negative charge and behaves as a unit
Coordinate covalent bond
a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
VESPR Theory
states that because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence-electron pairs are as far apart as possible
linear molecule
a term used to describe the shape of certain molecules such as CO2
sigma bond
a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical along the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei
pi bond
a bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in the sausage-shaped regions above and below the nuclei of the bonded atoms
a process in which several atomic orbitals overlap to form the same number of equivalent hybrid orbitals
nonpolar covalent bond
a bond formed when the atoms in a molecule are alike and the bonding electrons are shared equally
polar covalent bond
a bond formed when two different atoms are joined by covalent bond and the bonding electrons are shared unequally
polar molecule
a molecule in which one end is slightly positive and the other is slightly negative
van der Waals forces
a term used to describe the weakest intermolecular attractions; these include dispersion forces and dipole interactions
network solid
a substance in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other
double covalent bond
a bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons
dispersion force
attractions between molecules caused by the electron motion on one molecule affecting the electron motion on the other through electrical forces; they are the weakest interactions between molecules
triple covalent bond
a bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
hydrogen bond
attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electron negative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom
resonance structure
one of the two or more equally valid electron dot structures of a molecule or a polyatomic ion
a molecule that has two poles or regions with opposite charges
unshared pairs
a pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms
functional group
a specific arrangement of atoms in an organic compound that is capable of characteristic chemical reactions
Substitution Reaction
a common type of organic reaction which involves the replacement of an atom or gropu of atoms bu another atom or group of atoms; Example - the reaction of chlorine with ethane to produce ethyl chloride and hydrogen chloride
aryl halides
a class of organic compounds in which one of more halogen atoms are joined to a carbon of an arene ring
alkyl halides
a halocarbon in which one or more halogen atoms are attached to the carbon atoms of an aliphatic chain
any member of a class of organic compounds containing covalently bonded fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine
primary alcohol
one R group attached to C-OH
secondary alcohol
two R groups attached to C-OH
tertiary alcohol
three R groups attaced to C-OH
IUPAC ending used for an alcohol with two OH substitutions
compound in which oxygen is bonded to two carbon groups
Addition reaction
adding new functional groups at the double or triple bond of an alkene or alkyne; example the reaction of HBr with propene to form 1-bromopropane
hydration reaction
the addition of water to an alkene
the production of ethanol from sugars by the action of yeast or bacteria
a class of organic compounds whose structures contain an -OH group
hydrogenation reaction
a reaction in which hydrogen is added to a carbon-carbon double bond to give an alkane; example the reaction of hydrogen with butene to form butane
hydroxyl group
the -OH functional group present in alcohols
an organic compound in which the carbon of the carbonyl group is joined to at least one hydrogen; the general formula is RCHO
aliphatic hydrocarbon
any straight-chain or branched chain alkane, alkene, or alkyne
carboxylic acid
an organic acid containing a carboxyl gropu; the general formula is RCOOH
carbonyl group
a functional group having a carbon atom and an oxygen atom joined by a double bond; it is found in aldehydes, ketones, esters, and amides
carboxyl group
a function gropu consisting of a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group; it is found in carboylic acids
denatured alcohol
ethanol to which a poisonous substance has been added to make it toxic
a simple molecule that repeately combines to form a polymer
a very large molecule formed by the covalent bonding of repeating small molecules, known as monomers
the mass of solute that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature
saturated solution
a solution in which no more of a particular solute can be dissolved at a specific temperature
unsaturated solution
a solution in which more of a particular solute can be dissolved at a specific temperature
describes substances that are able to combine with each other in any proportion
describes substances that are not able to combine with each other in any proportion
diluted solution
a solution that contains a small amount of solute
concentrated solution
a solution that contains a large amount of solute
supersaturated solution
contains more solute that it can theoretically hold at a given temperature
Complete ionic equation
shows dissolved ionic compounds as dissociated free ions
Net ionic equation
shows only those particles that are directly involved in the chemical change
spectator ion
an ion that appears on both sides of an equation and is not directly involved in the reaction
surface tension
the inward force or pull that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid
any substance that interferes with the hydrogen bonding between water molcules and thereby reduces surface tension; a wetting agent
a homogenous mixture; made of solutes dissolved in a solution
Mixed Kool-aid is an example of this
dissolved particles in a solution
aqueous solution
water that contains dissolved substances
the dissolving medium of a solution
the process by which the positive and negative ions of an ionic solid become surrounded by water
factors that affect how quickly a solute will dissolve include surface area of dissolving particles, stirring, and ______________
hydrogen bond
intermolecular attraction between a hydrogen atom and a highly electronegative atom such as oxygen, on an adjacent molecule; example sodium hydroxide
a compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in the molton state
a compound that does not conduct an electric current in either aqueous solution or molten state; example table sugar
weak electrolyte
a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions ex: ammonia
strong electrolyte
a solution in which a large portion of the solute exists as ions ex: salt
Mole ratio
relationship between moles in a balanced chemical equation
Law of Conservation of Mass
During a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants is always equal to the total mass of the products
the study of the relative quantities of reactants and products in a reaction
Gravimetric stoichiometry
Stoichiometry analysis involving mass
Gas stoichiometry
stoichiometry involving the volume of gases
Stoichiometry coefficients
a number that is placed in fron tof the formula of a product or a reactant of a chemical equation to indicate the mole ratio of the reactants and products in a reaction
Stoichiometry amounts
the exact molar amount of a reactant or a product, as predicted by a balanced chemical equation
limiting reagent
the reactant that is completely consumed during a chemical reaction, limiting the amount of product that is produced
excess reactant
a reactant that remains after a chemical reaction is over
theoretical yield
calculated quantity
actual yield
measured quantity
percentage yield
the actual yield of a reaction, expressed as a result of the theoretical yield
competing reaction
a reaction tha toccurs at the same time as a principal reaction and consumes some of the reactants and/or products of the principal reaction
a relative measure of an atom's ability to attract the shared electrons in a chemical bond
bond energy
the amount of energy required to break a specific bond in one mole of molecule, given in kJ/mole
valence electrons
an electron tha toccupies the outermost energy level or shell of an atom
Lewis Structures
a symbolic representation of the arrangement of the valence electrons of an element or compound
octet rule
states that when bonds form, atoms gain, lose or share electrons in such as way as to achieve an octet or filled energy level