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Chemical formula

shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance

Valence electrons

electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element's atoms

Electron Dot Structure

A diagram tha tshows valence electrons as dots

Octet Rule

In forming compounds, atoms tend to react so as to acquire the stable electron configuration of a noble gas

Halide ion

a negative ion formed when a halogen atom gains an electron

Formula Unit

the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound

Ionic bonds

the electrostatic attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together

Coordination Number

the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal

metallic bonds

the attraction of free-floating valence electrosn for positively charged metal ions

Ionic compounds

compounds composed of cations and anions


a mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal


negatively charged ions


positively charged ions


process by which hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller molecules


fossil fuel containing straight and branched chain alkanes


process by which petroleum is separated into fractions


Brown coal, consisting of about 50% carbon


Hard coal, which is high in carbon content


hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon triple bonds


Group of atoms that takes the place of hydrogen in a parent hydrocarbon

cis configuration

Geometric isomer with substituted groups on the same side of the double bond

homologous series

series of compounds related by a constant increment of change


another name for an aromatic hydrocarbon


molecules that differ in the arrangement of atoms in space

saturated compounds

organic compounds that contain the maiximum number of hydrogen atoms per carbon atom

cyclic hydrocarbons

organic compounds that contain hydrocarbon rings


when two or more equally valid structures can be drawn for a molecule

phenyl group

name given to a benzene ring when it is a substituent

aromatic compounds

group of hydrocarbons that contain a benzene ring or a ring with bonding like that of benzene


compounds that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures

structural isomers

compounds that have the same molecular formula but the atoms are joined in a different order

asymmetric carbon

a carbon with four different groups attached

geometric isomers

isomers that differ in the concentration of groups around a double bond

trans configuration

configuration of teh substituted groups on opposite sides of the double bond

optical isomers

pairs of molecules that differ only in the way four different groups are arranged around a central carbon atom


contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond

unsaturated compounds

organic compounds that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds

straight chain alkanes

organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen

branched chain alkanes

alkanes that contain one or more alkyl substituents

alkyl group

a hydrocarbon substituent


hydrocarbons that contain only single covalent bonds


an electrically neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds

Molecular Compound

compound composed of molecules

Covalent Bond

joins atoms held together by sharing electrons

Diatomic molecule

a molecule composed of two atoms

Molecular formula

shows the kinds and numbers present in a molecule of a compound

Single Covalent Bond

a chemical bond in which only one pair of electrons is shared by two bonded atoms

Structural formula

a chemical formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion

bond dissociation energy

the amount of energy required to break a covalent bond between atoms

Polyatomic ion

a tightly bound group of atoms taht has a positive or negative charge and behaves as a unit

Coordinate covalent bond

a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons

VESPR Theory

states that because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence-electron pairs are as far apart as possible

linear molecule

a term used to describe the shape of certain molecules such as CO2

sigma bond

a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical along the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei

pi bond

a bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in the sausage-shaped regions above and below the nuclei of the bonded atoms


a process in which several atomic orbitals overlap to form the same number of equivalent hybrid orbitals

nonpolar covalent bond

a bond formed when the atoms in a molecule are alike and the bonding electrons are shared equally

polar covalent bond

a bond formed when two different atoms are joined by covalent bond and the bonding electrons are shared unequally

polar molecule

a molecule in which one end is slightly positive and the other is slightly negative

van der Waals forces

a term used to describe the weakest intermolecular attractions; these include dispersion forces and dipole interactions

network solid

a substance in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other

double covalent bond

a bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons

dispersion force

attractions between molecules caused by the electron motion on one molecule affecting the electron motion on the other through electrical forces; they are the weakest interactions between molecules

triple covalent bond

a bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms

hydrogen bond

attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electron negative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom

resonance structure

one of the two or more equally valid electron dot structures of a molecule or a polyatomic ion


a molecule that has two poles or regions with opposite charges

unshared pairs

a pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms

functional group

a specific arrangement of atoms in an organic compound that is capable of characteristic chemical reactions

Substitution Reaction

a common type of organic reaction which involves the replacement of an atom or gropu of atoms bu another atom or group of atoms; Example - the reaction of chlorine with ethane to produce ethyl chloride and hydrogen chloride

aryl halides

a class of organic compounds in which one of more halogen atoms are joined to a carbon of an arene ring

alkyl halides

a halocarbon in which one or more halogen atoms are attached to the carbon atoms of an aliphatic chain


any member of a class of organic compounds containing covalently bonded fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine

primary alcohol

one R group attached to C-OH

secondary alcohol

two R groups attached to C-OH

tertiary alcohol

three R groups attaced to C-OH


IUPAC ending used for an alcohol with two OH substitutions


compound in which oxygen is bonded to two carbon groups

Addition reaction

adding new functional groups at the double or triple bond of an alkene or alkyne; example the reaction of HBr with propene to form 1-bromopropane

hydration reaction

the addition of water to an alkene


the production of ethanol from sugars by the action of yeast or bacteria


a class of organic compounds whose structures contain an -OH group

hydrogenation reaction

a reaction in which hydrogen is added to a carbon-carbon double bond to give an alkane; example the reaction of hydrogen with butene to form butane

hydroxyl group

the -OH functional group present in alcohols


an organic compound in which the carbon of the carbonyl group is joined to at least one hydrogen; the general formula is RCHO

aliphatic hydrocarbon

any straight-chain or branched chain alkane, alkene, or alkyne

carboxylic acid

an organic acid containing a carboxyl gropu; the general formula is RCOOH

carbonyl group

a functional group having a carbon atom and an oxygen atom joined by a double bond; it is found in aldehydes, ketones, esters, and amides

carboxyl group

a function gropu consisting of a carbonyl group attached to a hydroxyl group; it is found in carboylic acids

denatured alcohol

ethanol to which a poisonous substance has been added to make it toxic


a simple molecule that repeately combines to form a polymer


a very large molecule formed by the covalent bonding of repeating small molecules, known as monomers


the mass of solute that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature

saturated solution

a solution in which no more of a particular solute can be dissolved at a specific temperature

unsaturated solution

a solution in which more of a particular solute can be dissolved at a specific temperature


describes substances that are able to combine with each other in any proportion


describes substances that are not able to combine with each other in any proportion

diluted solution

a solution that contains a small amount of solute

concentrated solution

a solution that contains a large amount of solute

supersaturated solution

contains more solute that it can theoretically hold at a given temperature

Complete ionic equation

shows dissolved ionic compounds as dissociated free ions

Net ionic equation

shows only those particles that are directly involved in the chemical change

spectator ion

an ion that appears on both sides of an equation and is not directly involved in the reaction

surface tension

the inward force or pull that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid


any substance that interferes with the hydrogen bonding between water molcules and thereby reduces surface tension; a wetting agent


a homogenous mixture; made of solutes dissolved in a solution


Mixed Kool-aid is an example of this


dissolved particles in a solution

aqueous solution

water that contains dissolved substances


the dissolving medium of a solution


the process by which the positive and negative ions of an ionic solid become surrounded by water


factors that affect how quickly a solute will dissolve include surface area of dissolving particles, stirring, and ______________

hydrogen bond

intermolecular attraction between a hydrogen atom and a highly electronegative atom such as oxygen, on an adjacent molecule; example sodium hydroxide


a compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in the molton state


a compound that does not conduct an electric current in either aqueous solution or molten state; example table sugar

weak electrolyte

a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions ex: ammonia

strong electrolyte

a solution in which a large portion of the solute exists as ions ex: salt

Mole ratio

relationship between moles in a balanced chemical equation

Law of Conservation of Mass

During a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants is always equal to the total mass of the products


the study of the relative quantities of reactants and products in a reaction

Gravimetric stoichiometry

Stoichiometry analysis involving mass

Gas stoichiometry

stoichiometry involving the volume of gases

Stoichiometry coefficients

a number that is placed in fron tof the formula of a product or a reactant of a chemical equation to indicate the mole ratio of the reactants and products in a reaction

Stoichiometry amounts

the exact molar amount of a reactant or a product, as predicted by a balanced chemical equation

limiting reagent

the reactant that is completely consumed during a chemical reaction, limiting the amount of product that is produced

excess reactant

a reactant that remains after a chemical reaction is over

theoretical yield

calculated quantity

actual yield

measured quantity

percentage yield

the actual yield of a reaction, expressed as a result of the theoretical yield

competing reaction

a reaction tha toccurs at the same time as a principal reaction and consumes some of the reactants and/or products of the principal reaction


a relative measure of an atom's ability to attract the shared electrons in a chemical bond

bond energy

the amount of energy required to break a specific bond in one mole of molecule, given in kJ/mole

valence electrons

an electron tha toccupies the outermost energy level or shell of an atom

Lewis Structures

a symbolic representation of the arrangement of the valence electrons of an element or compound

octet rule

states that when bonds form, atoms gain, lose or share electrons in such as way as to achieve an octet or filled energy level

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