Geology 105 Part II
Terms in this set (43)
Along divergent boundaries and at the mid-ocean ridge
Where are eruptions dominated by basalt compositions found?
a shield volcano made of basalt lava flows
If you see an extremely large volcano with very gentle slopes, what kind of a volcano is it and
what rock is it likely made of?
What is the term for when a solid turns to a gas?
What is the heat capacity of water?
The 2003 European heat wave resulted in more than how many human deaths?
600 million years old
Plutons in Chapel Hill are mostly how many years old?
From Spain to Cuba
Where do the Northeast trade winds move?
Pompeii and Herculaneum
The most famous of all volcanoes probably is Vesuvius, and the most famous of its eruptions
are those of 79 C.E., which buried which cities?
100 percent of humidity is reached
The lifting condensation level is one where what happens?
What are steep-sided, symmetrical volcanic peaks built of alternating layers of pyroclastic debris capped by high-viscosity andesitic to rhyolitic lava flows that solidify to form protective caps?
Which type of mass movement can move the fastest?
What is it called when the temperature changes without gaining heat?
water is adsorbed by the exterior clays, spreading the grains apart and is absorbed between the interlayer sheets,causing
Clay minerals may have their strength lessened by water when what happens?
Ancient volcanic remnants in central North Carolina most likely come from what?
gases and fluids
In what two things does convection occur?
pahoehoe is ropy-looking; aa is clinkery
How does pahoehoe lava differ from aa lava?
Tambora, in 1815
The volcanic explosivity index (VEI) measures size of volcanic eruptions on a scale of 0 to 8. Between 1500 and 1981, one VEI 7 eruption occurred that was called what?
the subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath North America
Active volcanoes today in Oregon and Washington, including Mt. St. Helens, result from what?
The great 1960 Chile earthquake (M 9.5) unleashed a tsunami that killed over 1,000 Chileans.These waves also killed 61 people in Hilo, Hawaii, 14 hours after the earthquake, and another 185 people in what state 22.5 hours after the earthquake?
This occurs when masses move down and out by sliding on planes of weakness, such as faults, bedding,
or clay rich layers
water freezes to ice
Latent heat of fusion occurs when?
Slope failures in soil often occur because what type of material swell when they get wet?
viscosity, volatiles, volume
The three Vs of volcanology are?
Crater Lake, Oregon, fills the caldera of which mountain that collapsed about 7600 years ago?
Tsunami arrive as a series of several waves separated by periods typically in what time range?
Mont Pele, Martinique
On 8 May 1902, a massive eruption of this volcano killed 30,000 people in the town of St. Pierre.
Lituya Bay, Alaska
The largest historic tsunami wave run-up ever recorded was caused by a massive rockfall into
the water where?
During the 1990's, hundreds of trees were killed at Mammoth Mountain, California, by the diffuse emission of what gas?
Tsunami warning systems are widely used in which Ocean?
effects of lateral blast
Many of the deaths at Mt. St. Helens on May 18, 1980 were related to what?
water vapor and carbon dioxide
What are the two most abundant gases in magmas?
v = the square root of gD
Using g = 9.8 m/sec2 and D= depth, the velocity (v) of a tsunami wave is?
Tsunami are created by big 'splashes' made in the deep ocean by all but what?
Several geologic phenomena are being studied as signs of an impending volcanic eruption. These
include seismic waves, the release of gases, and what?
ash gets into the engines, which melt the ash causing the engines to stop
Why is erupting volcanic ash dangerous to jet aircraft flying at an altitude of 8 to 10 kilometers (30,000 feet)?
The subduction of Mediterranean sea floor beneath Europe.
What is the cause of volcanism at Italy's Vesuvius, Stromboli, Vulcano, and Etna?
decrease in pressure as the magma rises
What can cause water to separate from a water-bearing basaltic magma to drive an eruption?
acidic freshwater flowing through limestone
Catastrophic subsidence into sinkholes tends to occur more often in areas underlain by what?
Hadley Cells form as a result of what?
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was generated by a magnitude 9.2 earthquake along what off
the shore of Sumatra?
It decreases the pressure of gases dissolved in the magma, permitting them to expand
If the bulge grows steep enough it may collapse. Explain how this can trigger an explosive eruption?
width compared to its height
A shield volcano has great what?
Most tsunami travel at speeds of how many miles per hour?