How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

57 terms

Memory

Terms from Myers 7e Chapter 9 and notes from class on Memory
STUDY
PLAY
memory
persistence of learning over time; involves encoding, storage, and retrieval of information
flashbulb memory
clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
encoding
the processing of information into the memory system--for example, by extracting meaning
storage
the retention of encoded information over time
retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory
the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
short-term memory (STM)
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as 7 digits of phone number while dialing
long-term memory (LTM)
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, often of space, time, and frequency (e.g. where you parked your car or when you got up this morning)
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort (e.g. remembering vocabulary words for Spanish class)
rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or encode it for storage
next-in-line effect
tendency to forget what was said by the person immediately before you during introductions or saying words
Hermann Ebbinghaus
early memory researcher who taught himself lists of nonsense syllables to systematically test his recall
spacing effect
tendency for distributed practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the first and last items in a list
primacy effects
better recall of information presented at the beginning of a list or class
recency effects
advantage in recall of information just recently presented (compared to information presented earlier)
Von Restorff effect
tendency to remember distinctive stimuli better than less distinctive stimuli; also sometimes called semantic distinctiveness
visual encoding
encoding of (either imagined or viewed) picture images
acoustic encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
semantic encoding
encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
mnemonics
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
loci
type of mnemonic that exploits the ease with which we recall layouts of familiar locations; remembering items on a list by visualizing them placed in familiar locations
peg-word system
mnemonic device used to recall items in a list by picking a rhyming word to match the number, then visualizing the item with that rhyme word
levels of processing model
model of memory storage which suggests that we better remember information that we spend more time and cognitive effort processing (e.g. deep v. shallow processing)
self-reference effect
phenomenon whereby we better remember information perceived to be relevant to ourselves
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
echoic memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory information; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled for 3 or 4 seconds
iconic memory
momentary sensory memory of visuals images; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
George Miller
wrote the book, "The Magical Number 7 +/- 2," describing the capacity of short term memory
long-term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; believed to be the neural basis for learning and memory
amnesia
loss of memory
anterograde amnesia
inability to form new memories, often as a result of damage to the hippocampus or surrounding areas
retrograde amnesia
memory loss for events and learning that occured prior to the memory-disrupting injury
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection; includes procedural memory and classically conditioned responses
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously known and "declare" (also called declarative memory)
hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
recall
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank question (with no word bank)
recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test
relearning
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
priming
a retrieval cue; the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
state-dependent memory
tendency to better recall information learned during an altered state of consciousness when again in that altered state of consciousness (e.g. an alcoholic recalling the previous night's events only when drinking again)
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information; what you learned before interferes with your ability to recall more recently learned info
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information; what you learned recently interferes with your ability to recall information learned before
repression
Freudian notion that we may unconsciously suppress memories of anxiety-arousing events or realities as a defense mechanism
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading or inaccurate information into one's memory of an event
Elizabeth Loftus
psychologist famous for her research on memory construction & false memories
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (contributes to false memories)
Forgetting Curve
the pattern of storage decay descibed by Ebbinghaus; retention of information drops off sharply, then stabilizes, as time passes after learning
elaborative rehearsal
a memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory, as opposed to simply repeating the information over & over
prospective memory
remembering to do things in the future
metacognition
"Thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task
procedural memory
A type of implicit long-term memory of how to perform different actions and skills. Essentially, it is the memory of how to do certain things.
deep processing
Encoding through meaningful interaction with the content. Often, encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention
shallow processing
Encoding on a basic level. Often based on the structure or appearance of words.