The Little Ice Age that affected Europe from about what years lowered average annual temperature by only about 1◦C but was enough to reduce crop yields, cause mountain glaciers to advance,and produce winters much more severe than in the twentieth century?
the speed of the storm body and wind speed
If you are on the "right-hand side" of the tropical cyclone in the Northern Hemisphere you experience what?
The organic debris left on the ground after logging or windstorms is called what?
carbon dioxide and water vapor
Fire produces what?
Grasses have broad, exposed surfaces resulting in what?
flash floods from local thunderstorms
Most flood-related deaths in the United States are caused by what?
Hurricane Katrina (2005) ranks how high in a list of the 13 deadliest (number of fatalities) hurricanes in the United States since 1900?
The "White Hurricane" of 1993 was an immense winter cyclone that covered the eastern United States, causing $800 million in damage and 238 deaths. The hardest hit area was what state?
aggressive fire suppression for many decades
Why are fires more frequent and hotter now than they were several decades ago?
Huang (Yellow) River in China
What river is reputed to have killed more people than any other natural feature?
two cooling stages during warmup from the last major glacial advance
The Older Dryas and Younger Dryas stages represented what?
What does the greenhouse effect result in?
the jet stream locked in place over north-central plains for an unusually long time
What led to the 1993 flood in the midcontinental United States?
Pyrolysis of cellulose produces what?
The Saffir-Simpson scale is used to measure the intensity of what?
When approaching the Western Hemisphere, hurricanes commonly move north on clockwise-curving paths due to what?
larger numbers to describe larger disasters.
Of the disaster scales discussed in the book (Richter, Modified Mercalli, Fujita, Saffir-Simpson) use what to describe the extremity of a natural disaster?
What month historically has more hurricanes than any other month?
The most famous of the ice-dam failure floods is preserved in the "channeled scablands" topography in what state?
The inflection point where the thermal gradiant reverses from cooling to heating is called the what?
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Which of the following greenhouse gases accounts for 60% of global warming?
lowered global average temperature 2◦C
Over the last 7,000 years what has occurred with the world's average temperature?
in its downstream section, near its mouth
If a stream has a meandering section, that section is most likely to be what?
storm surges that flooded coastal areas
Hurricane Rita caused disaster problems in Louisiana because there were what?
Tambora in 1815 C.E.
The eruption of what volcano has been called the greatest eruption in historic times, killing about 10,000 people outright by pyroclastic flows and another 117,000 indirectly through famine and disease?
One of the greatest weather disasters in U.S. history occurred during what decade, when several years of drought turned grain-growing areas in the center of the nation into the "Dust Bowl"?
Along many low-lying sections of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts, a 1 ft rise in sea level may equate to as much as how many feet of inland movement of the beach?
Glass is opaque to what length radiation?
What is the probability that a 100-year flood will occur at least once in 100 years?
The Saffir-Simpson scale is numbered 1-5 with larger numbers indicating what?
higher rates of runoff and that floods are of shorter duration than in rural settings, for a given precipitation event
Hydrographs from urban settings show what?
Mediterranean Sea into the Black Sea
About 7500 years ago a major flood apparently occurred through the Straits of Bosporus because of rising sea levels related to melting of glaciers. The floodwaters flowed from where to where?
increases the gradient of the stream bottom, making the water flow faster
With respect to channelization, straightening the channel does what?
the warm, moist air above tropical seas into the core of the hurricane
A hurricane acts as a heat engine, transferring heat from where?
too much sediment to carry
A braided stream has what?
The rate of global sea-level rise is currently averaging about how many feet per century?
Inside the eye of a well-developed hurricane what does air do?
the low pressure zone in the eye that causes the sea level to rise and the winds to race into the chimney of the eye making a tall mound
A large mound of seawater (storm surge) builds up beneath the eye of a hurricane because of what?
On 8 September 1900, the deadliest hurricane in U.S. history struck where?
up a slope
Fire burns faster
Limestone is a rock composed of what?
The vast majority of deaths from fire in the US occur where?