AP US History KTPTK Unit 7
Terms in this set (91)
Revolution of 1800
Electoral Victory of Democratic Republicans over the Federalists, who lost their Congressional majority and the presidency. The peaceful transfer of power between rival parties solidified faith in America's political system.
Practice of rewarding political support with special favors, often in the form of public office. Upon assuming office, Thomas Jefferson dismissed few Federalist employees, leaving scant openings to fill with political appointees.
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court case that established the principle of "judicial review" - the idea that the Supreme Court had the final authority to determine constitutionality.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Passed by the departing Federalist Congress,, it created sixteen new federal judgeships ensuring a Federalist hold on the judiciary.
Orders in Council
Edicts issued by the British Crown closing French-owned European ports to foreign shipping. The French responded by ordering the seizure of all vessels entering British ports, thereby cutting off American merchants from trade with both parties.
Act of forcibly drafting an individual into military service, employed by the British navy against American seamen in times of war against France, 1793-1815. _______ was a continual source of conflict between Britain and the US in the early national period.
Democratic-Republican Congressmen who pressed James Madison to declare war on Britain. Largely drawn from the South and West, the ______ resented British constraints on American trade and accused the British of supporting Indian attacks against American settlements on the frontier.
War of 1812
Fought between Britain and the US largely over the issues of trade and impressment. Though the war ended in a relative draw, it demonstrated America's willingness to defend its interests militarily, earning the young nation newfound respect from European powers.
Congress of Vienna
Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France.
Treaty of Ghent
Ended the War of 1812 in a virtual draw, restoring prewar borders but failing to address any of the grievances that first brought America into the war.
Convention of Federalists from five New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Western interests in Congress and in the White House.
Era of Good Feelings
Popular name for the period of one-party, Republican, rule during James Monroe's presidency. The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank.
Panic of 1819
Severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the US to curb over-speculation on western lands. It disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the West, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian Democracy.
Widely used term for the institution of American slavery in the South. Its use in the first half of the 19th century reflected a growing division between the North, where slavery was gradually abolished, and the South, where slavery became increasingly entrenched.
Missouri Compromise of 1820
Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, north of the line 36°30'.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court case that strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States by establishing that the State of Maryland did not have power to tax the bank.
Cohens v. Virginia
Case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal government.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Suit over whether New York State could grant a monopoly to a ferry operation on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
Fletcher v. Peck
Established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the federal Constitution.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Supreme Court case that sustained ________ 's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments.
Under the agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the US, which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas.
Statement delivered by President James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The US largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets.
Alleged deal between presidential candidates John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to throw the election, to be decided by the House of Representatives, in Adam's favor. Though never proven, the accusation became the rallying cry for supporters of Andrew Jackson, who had actually garnered a plurality of the popular vote in 1824.
Policy of rewarding political supporters with public office, first welly employed at the federal level by Andrew Jackson. The practice was widely abused by unscrupulous office seekers, but it also helped cement party loyalty in the emerging two-party system.
Tariff of Abominations
Noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties on imports. Southerners vehemently opposed the ______, arguing that it hurt Southern farmers, who did not enjoy the protection of tariffs, but were forced to pay higher prices for manufacturers.
Showdown between President Andrew Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved by a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in 1833.
Passed by Congress alongside the Compromise Tariff, it authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties.
Indian Removal Act
Ordered the removal of Indian Tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west or Arkansas and Missouri. Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles.
Trail of Tears
Forced march of 15,000 Cherokee Indians from their Georgia and Alabama homes to Indian Territory. Some 4,000 Cherokee died on the arduous journey.
Battle between President Andrew Jackson and Congressional supporters of the Bank of the US over the bank's renewal in 1832. Jackson vetoed the Bank ill, arguing that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers.
Popular term for pro-Jackson state banks that received the bulk of federal deposits when Andrew Jackson moved to dismantle the Bank of the US in 1833.
US Treasury decree requiring that all public lands be purchased with "hard," or metallic, currency. Issued after small state banks flooded the market with unreliable paper currency, fueling land speculation in the West.
Panic of 1837
Economic crisis triggered by bank failures, elevated grain prices, and Andrew Jackson's efforts to curb over-speculation on western lands and transportation improvements. In response, President Martin Van Buren proposed the "Divorce Bill," which pulled treasury funds out of the banking system altogether, contracting the credit supply.
Nativist political party, also known as the American party, which emerged in response to an influx of immigrants, particularly Irish Catholics.
Eli Whitney's invention that sped up the process of harvesting cotton. The gin made cotton cultivation more profitable, revitalizing the Southern economy and increasing the importance of slavery in the South.
Federal government bureau that reviews patent applications. A patent is a legal recognition of a new invention, granting exclusive rights to the inventor for a period of years.
Cult of Domesticity
Pervasive nineteenth-century cultural creed that venerated the domestic role of women. It gave married women greater authority to shape home life but limited opportunities outside the domestic sphere.
Mechanized the harvest of grains, such as wheat, allowing farmers to cultivate larger plots. The introduction of the _____ in the 1830s fueled the establishment of large-scale commercial agriculture in the Midwest.
Privately-funded, toll-based public road constructed in the early nineteenth century to facilitate commerce.
New York state canal that linked Lake Erie to the Hudson River. It dramatically lowered shipping costs, fueling an economic boom in upstate New York and increasing the profitability of farming in the Old Northwest.
Short-lived, speedy mail service between Missouri and California that relied on lightweight riders galloping between closely placed outposts.
Term referring to a series of nineteenth-century transportation innovations - turnpikes, steamboats, calls, and railroads - that linked local and regional markets, creating a national economy.
Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century transformation from a disaggregated, subsistence economy to a national commercial and industrial network.
Eighteenth-century religions doctrine that emphasized reasoned moral behavior and the scientific pursuit of knowledge. Most ______ rejected biblical inerrancy and the divinity of Christ, but they did believe that a Supreme Being created the universe.
Believe in a unitary deity, reject the divinity of Christ, and emphasize the internet goodness of mankind. __________, inspired in part by Deism, first caught on in New England at the end of the eighteenth century.
Second Great Awakening
Religious revival characterized by emotional mass "camp meetings" and widespread conversion. Brough about a democratization of religion as a multiplicity of denominations vied for members.
Religious followers of Joseph Smith, who founded a communal, oligarchic religious order in the 1830s, officially known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. _______, facing deep hostility from their non-_______ neighbors, eventually migrated west and established a flourishing settlement in the Utah desert.
American Temperance Society
Founded in Boston in 1826 as part of a growing effort of nineteenth-century reformers to limit alcohol consumption.
Seneca Falls Convention
Gathering of feminist activists in Seneca Falls, NY, where Elizabeth Cady Stanton read her "Declaration of Sentiments," stating that "all men and women are created equal."
Communal society of around one thousand members, established in _________, Indiana by Robert Owen. The community attracted a hodgepodge of individuals, from scholars to crooks, and fell apart due to infighting and confusion after just two years.
Transcendentalist commune founded by a group of intellectuals, who emphasized living plainly while pursuing the life of the mind. The community fell into debt and dissolved when their communal home burned to the ground in 1846.
One of the more radical utopian communities established in the nineteenth century, it advocated "free love," birth control, and eugenics. Utopian communities reflected the reformist spirit of the age.
Called ______ for their lively dance worship, they emphasized simple, communal living and were all expected to practice celibacy. First transplanted to America from England by Mother Ann Lee, the ______ counted six thousand members by 1840, though by the 1940s the movement had largely died out.
Hudson River School
American artistic movement that produced romantic renditions of local landscapes.
Literary and intellectual movement that emphasized individualism and self-reliance, predicated upon a belief that each person possesses an "inner-light" that can point the way to truth and direct contact with God.
Secret organization of Irish miners that campaigned, at times violently, against poor working conditions in the Pennsylvania mines.
US Chief Supreme Court Justice who introduced the concept of Judicial Review and increased the Federal Government's and Supreme Court's power.
Helped swing the key state of New York away from the Federalists in the Election of 1800, Jefferson's first-term Vice President. When he was dropped from the cabinet in Jefferson's second term, he joined a group of Federalists to plot the secession of New England and New York. Hamilton foiled these plans and Burr challenged him to a duel in which he killed Alexander Hamilton. Later, he was arrested and tried for treason and once acquitted he fled for Europe where he urged Napoleon to invade America.
An American naval officer who captured a British fleet on Lake Erie and infused new life into the American cause in the War of 1812. "We have met the enemy and they are ours
Francis Scott Key
An American who was detained in the War of 1812 who wrote the words of "The Star-Spangled Banner"
The fifth president of the United States. He warned the European powers in the Monroe Doctrine which featured noncolonization and nonintervention, concerned with the security of his own country.
A British foreign secretary that proposed that the US combine with Britain in a joint declaration renouncing any interest in acquiring Latin American territory and warning Europeans to keep their hands off of the Latin American republics.
John Quincy Adams
Sixth president of the US. Secretary of State to James Monroe who largely helped Monroe form the Monroe Doctrine. He also drew up the Adams-Onis treaty.
Seventh President of the US. A major general in the US army in the War of 1812. The first president from the West and the first nominated at a formal party convention. Only the second president with a college education. The spoils system came was introduced. The Trail of Tears occurred during this presidency.
John C. Calhoun
Was a disunionist in defense of the South and slavery who advocated for a dual presidency.
A congressman who was very devoted to the union. "One country, one constitution, and one destiny."
A representative who promoted his nationalistic "American System" of protective tariffs for eastern manufactures and federally financed canals and highways to benefit the West. Also known as the Great Compromiser. Ran for president.
Was a soldier, lawyer, congressman, and governor in Tennessee and was elected to the US Senate and the governorship of Texas. Forced into retirement when his support for the Union caused him to spurn the Confederacy in the Civil War.
the "Father of the Factory System"; a British mechanic who memorized the plans for British machinery and escaped to America where he put into operation the first efficient American machinery for spinning cotton thread. Began child labor in factories.
Inventor of the cotton gin who renewed slavery and perhaps increased the likeliness of the Civil War.
Inventor of the sewing machine that had limited commercial appeal.
Perfected Elias Howe's invention of the sewing machine and introduced an installment buying plan which helped place sewing machines in most middle-class households.
Inventor of the telegraph which revolutionized news gathering, diplomacy, and finance.
Produced a steel plow that broke the stubborn soil of the West that was light enough to be pulled by horses.
Invented the mechanical reaper that greatly assisted the West, allowing a single man to do the work of five. Assisted in the agricultural growth of America.
Installed a powerful steam engine in a vessel, inventing the steam boat and now allowing people to travel regardless of wind, wave, tide, and downstream currents, therefore doubling America's streams' carrying capacity. Steamboats played a vital role in opening the West and the South.
A well known Methodist "circuit rider" or traveling frontier preacher. Called upon sinners to repent from Tennessee to Illinois and converted thousands of souls to the Lord.
The greatest of the revival preachers. Said to have converted half a million people. Established a theology department at the newly founded Oberlin College in Ohio where he helped train a generation of ministers.
Founder of the Mormon Church, was reputed to have had several wives. Was murdered in 1844 in a mob in Carthage, Illinois and the movement almost collapsed.
Successor to Joseph Smith. An aggressive leader, an eloquent preacher, and a gifted administrator. Led the Mormons to Utah.
A graduate of Brown University and secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he campaigned for more and better schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum.
New England teacher-author who travelled 60,000 miles in 8 years to assemble her damning reports on insanity and asylums. Her petition to the Massachusetts legislature resulted in improved conditions and in a gain for the concept that the demented were not willfully perverse but mentally ill.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
One of the most persistent battlers for women's suffrage. Organized the Seneca Falls Convention.
Susan B Anthony
Quaker-reared, one of the most persistent battlers for women's suffrage, a militant lecturer for women's rights.
James Fennimore Cooper
A famous romantic author whose fame rests on his five Leatherstocking Tales featuring Natty Bumppo. A deep theme was an exploration of the viability and destiny of America's republican experiment. Emblematic tales of the vanishing frontier.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
The best known transcendentalist who did the address, "The American Scholar" which urged American writers to throw off European traditions. Stressed self reliance, self improvement, self confidence, optimism, and freedom.
Henry David Thoreau
Emerson's close associate, a poet, a mystic, a transcendentalist, and a nonconformist. Condemned the government for supporting to supporting slavery. Was jailed for a night for refusing to pay his poll tax. Well known for Walden: Or Life in the Woods, a record of his two years of simple existence in a hut built on the edge of Walden Pond.
Wrote a famous collection of poems called Leaves of Grass. His landmark was "Song of Myself." Located divinity in natural objects as well as the human body.
A poet who secluded herself, an extreme example of the romantic artist's desire for social remove. Explored universal themes of nature, love, death, and immortality.
His masterpiece was Moby Dick, an American transcendentalist.