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Arts and Humanities
Mass Comm Quiz 3
Terms in this set (56)
All modern civilizations.....
would collapse lost ability to read and write
Earliest texts contain.....
numeric concepts and pictographs that depict types of goods
Early Sumerian writing.....
was a supplement to numeric tokens, to record economic transactions
Writing and token use....
overlapped for at least a century
First written sentences.....
described movement of grains store at temples: "take in, "give out"
Earliest texts were....
exclusively economic processes
After designing signs for economic activities.....
the designing of signs referencing other activities quickly followed
Larger temples establish....
tablet houses where students were taught how to write
For the first few centuries....
writing was used only for temple-centered economic activities
Three hundred years after the Sumerians....
had begun to write sentences, the writing of sagas began
Writing emerged among the Egyptians for.....
palace-centered activity (administration, "royal")
Different types of writings are developed....
as two basic types are photographic and phonetic
Most ancient writings were based on....
object (shapes), indirectly referenced discourse
Techniques to make pictographs more isomorphic with spoken languages
a) photographic characters that referenced sound later developed
b) composite characters were developed
easily recognizable configurations
stylish, could only be recognized by the literates
elaborations made pictographs more adequately
transform speech, but photographic writings became less and less accessible
distinctions between literates and illiterates...
a major chasm
calligraphy flourished while
art and writing amalgamated
market context of writing
making writing easier and useful, characters created for syllables, syllabic languages developed (Mesopotamia)
palace context of writing
large number of characters developed, writing was only for state elites for administering state affairs (china, Egypt)
China, Egypt, and Maya endowed writing with sacredness (writing instrument to maintain social order)
pictographs endure longer
less memorization on the writer
(oral gathering) highly responsive, dramatic, exciting joyful performances and celebrations
more orderly, less evocative, ritualistic reading of sacred texts
gender of divine figures
Goddesses accompanied by gods was replaced by gods accompanied by goddesses, as writing replaced orality
pictographic literates more complete control of administrative information than oral specialists or phonetic literates (pictographic literates exercised hegemony)
learned Egyptians pictographs, and use pictographs to reference phonemes of their spoken language
Easy to master
only need 25 to 35 phonetic characters to transform spoken discourse into writing
Once acquired phonetic characters
hypothetically possible to transform all speech into writing
Early phonetic writing
varied spelling.....the first grammar in Western Europe was written in 1492 forty years after print entered Europe
Pictograph and Phonetic Writing
Pictograph- writing for state record keeping (China and Egypt)
Phonetic Writing- matured in market places (Phoenician and Greek) transforming orality into writing
Society with low literacy rate...
most acquired information via listening, not reading
Listening to a reader instead of reading for oneself....
was a common activity----Augustus summoned a reader, not reach for a book
Until after the invention of printing....
nearly all Europeans acquired the content of the Bible by listening to a literate priest
a) fostered continuity across time
b) dichotomized citizenry--literates vs illiterates
c) enhanced monopoly of knowledge
d) invited totalitarian states
a) promoted sharing information
b) difficult to maintain monopoly
oral- more indispensable
oral- public, fluid, emotional, varied trails as communal extravagances, prosecutors and defenders competed for audience appreciation of their efforts
literate- presented written statements to the judge
Qualities of Written Information
written information allows for efficient processing of information
a) read faster than listening
b) read selectively
constructing commitment (Oral)
spoken word- nonconvertible realities of body experiences
written word- substanceless scratching
firm commitment- shake hands
constructing commitment (Literate)
firm commitment- put it in writing
emotional quality in writing
a) writing especially phonetic, depresses evocative communication favors referential information
b) oral information has emotional substance: tempo, intonation, stress
writing- one can provide information without being accountable: graffiti, secret ballots, anonymous letters
a) written information allows for reflection
b) writer and reader could detect internal inconsistencies
c) writing and reading allows for analytical standpoint listening invites involvement
d) readers pay attention to content; listeners pay attention to the performers
e) Rationality replaced emotionality (as the source of knowledge) as phonetic writing replaced orality (as the dominant information technology)
a) written languages, especially phonetic, facilitate the formation of abstract concepts
b) Greek intellectuals, as they became literate, pushed for greater abstraction
c) logic emerged as intellectuals began to compose prosaic narrative
a) writing- knowledge exists independent of human action
myths and histories
(a) oral history- little chronological depth and duration, not precise or specific
b) history began- writing and calendar
c) written history- extended chronologies and duration, precise and specific
palace centered states
literates (attached to temples and palaces)
a) constructed histories to rationalize the position of state elites
b) ancient history: equate beginning of order with founding of the nation---ancient Egyptian history: before founding of Egypt all was chaos
cyclical past...every present and future is a recurrence of the past
inspiration from celestial phenomena (timekeepers) if celestial events were cyclical, so were human affairs
could not conceive the emergence of phenomena denied transformation and presumed nature and human society existed in steady state
past is regarded as a preferred state of being, future is closed
phonetic states: linear past
present is preferable to the past, future is open
a) oral performances- shared adventure for the audiences
b) written information- written and read in solitude
c) written history- past became more precise, but less interesting
present condition prevailed in the past
knowledge of social change: compare description of the past to the present
sharing of information
a) oral narratives of the past known by nearly all
b) literate histories: have vs have nots (chasm greater than in orality (even with near universal literacy)
c) information is dispensed at public ceremonies: difficult to avoid
d) written info: one needs to seek out
Recommended textbook explanations
myPerspectives: English Language Arts, California (Grade 9, Volume 1)
myPerspectives: American Literature, California (Volume 1)
SpringBoard English Language Arts: Grade 8
Pearson Common Core Literature, Grade 10
Kelly Gallagher Elfrieda "Freddy" Hiebert, Donald J. Leu P Diane Fettrow
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