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NESPA: Research Vocab and Concepts
Terms in this set (32)
experiment first and explain later approach
explain first and verify later approach
A prediction that there is no difference between groups or conditions, or a statement or an idea that can be falsified, or proved wrong.
the two variables are related
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
consistency of measurement
the extent to which a score on a scale or test predicts scores on some criterion measure
the extent to which two measures of the same trait or ability agree
the extent to which variables measure what they are supposed to measure
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency
alternate forms reliability
using different varieties of the test to measure consistency between them
A measure of reliability in which a test is split into two parts and an individual's scores on both halves are compared.
interobserver (interjudge) reliability
when similar measurements are obtained by different observers rating the same persons, events, or places
intraobserver (intrajudge) reliability
the extent to which the same observer repeatedly measures the same event consistently
variable that is manipulated
The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
A design in which researchers manipulate an independent variable and measure a dependent variable to determine a cause-and-effect relationship
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
single subject design
A wide variety of research designs that use a form of experimental reasoning called baseline logic to demonstrate the effects of the independent variable on the behavior of individual subjects.
Also called Reversal procedure
Compares pre-post tx
Ideal ax of tx efficacy (not just research but clinically)
An experimental design, often involving a single subject, wherein a baseline period (A) is followed by a treatment (B). To confirm that the treatment resulted in a change in behavior, the treatment is then withdrawn (A) and reinstated (B).
multiple baseline design
An Experimental design that begins with the concurrent measurement of two or more behaviors in a baseline condition, followed by the application of the treatment variable to one of the behaviors while baseline conditions remain in effect for the other behavior(s). After maximum change has been noted in the first behavior, the treatment variable is applied in sequential fashion to each of the other behaviors in the design.
research that compares one set of findings on one society with the same type of findings on other societies
A descriptive research approach designed to document how certain groups change over time on specific variables.
extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences from a study
All variables examined are continuous. Makes assumptions about which variable is influencing the other
extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings
Hawthrone Effect/ Observer effect
A type of reactivity in which individuals modify or improve an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
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