Unit 8: Evolution (bio)

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When Darwin first proposed his theory of evolution by natural selection, the field of genetics did not yet exist. In what way does genetic science now contribute to the study of evolution?
scientists can determine evolutionary relationships among living species by comparing amino acid, sequences coded for by DNA.
Biologists look at how organisms are related and when they first appeared on Earth. What is true about the organisms that live on Earth today?
the organisms alive today evolved from organisms that previously lived on Earth.
What are the similarities between a cat's leg, dolphin's flipper, and a bat's wing?
cats, dolphins, and bats may have had the same ancestor millions of years ago.
Speciation is the formation of new species as a result of evolution by natural selection. What effect could separation of populations have on speciation?
If environments differ enough, the separated populations may evolve differently.
The evolution of beak sizes in Galapagos finches is a response to what?
the types of seeds available
Scientists took at evidence to determine possible evolutionary relationships and mechanisms. What provides strong evidence for evolution?
the fossil record
how do hominids differ from other primates?
they are bipedal
how old is the universe?
15 billion years old
how was the universe formed?
began as a dense concentration of matter
What is the big bang theory?
an big explosion that is still expanding outward
how old is the Earth?
4.6 billion years old
how was the earth formed?
formed as part of the milky-way galaxy
what are 4 areas of modern society that propose answers to origins of life?
art, philosophy, science, religion
what did the earth look like 3.9 billion years ago?
hot seas, volcanic rainstorms, and much volcanic activity
how did DNA make it to Earth?
brought to Earth on cosmic debris (meteorites)
how did amino acids come to form?
from earth's primordial soup (methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen)
what do proteins combine to form?
early cells (protocells)
what did protocells become?
prokaryotes
what did prokaryotes develop into?
eukaryotes
What was Oparin's hypothesis? (russian geologist)
mp free oxygen in the early atmosphere
Evolution
refers to the Big Band theory that life forms have changed over time
evolution
simply means change
Where did life come from?
matter
abiogenesis
life from non-living
Louis Pasteur
microbiologist that disapproved abiogenesis using swan-necked flasks
biogenesis
life from life
fossil
preserved remains of the past (found in sedimentary rock)
paleontologist
fossil expert
4 types of fossils
imprints, molds, casts, petrified remains
imprints
carbon impression left on rock
molds
depression in rock shaped like organism
casts
depression filled with another substance
petrified remains
actual parts covered with hardened minerals
what are deepest layers of sedimentary rock?
oldest
what is radiometric dating?
measuring the amount of radioactive element present to determine a fossils age
half-life
time for element to decay in half
comparative anatomy
anatomical relationships show if organisms are closely similar or not
types of comparative anatomy
vestigial, homologous, analogous structures
vestigial structures
functionless
homologous structures
similar structures that serve different functions
analogous structures
different structure that serve similar functions
what percentage of species that once lived on earth are now extinct?
99%
geologic time
history of earth from the beginning
what is pangea?
single continent that existed 245 mya
plate tectonics
plates on which the continents move
laurasia gondwana
2 continents that existed 135 mya
geologic time chart
summarizes the history of life based on the fossil record
what are the subdivisions of geologic time?
eons, eras, periods
what are the eras of geologic time?
precambrian, paleozoice, mesozoic, cenozoic
precambrian
"age of the microorganisms"
paleozoic
"age of amphibians"
mesozoic
"age of the reptiles"
cenozoic
"age of the mammals"
what are the types of fossil record trends?
mass extinction, adaptive radiation
mass extinction
sudden disappearance of species (few mya)
adaptative radiation
rapid appearance of new species
what are the types of evolution trends
convergent evolution, divergent evolution, coevolution
convergent evolution
adapt in a similar way to similar environments
divergent evolution
adapt in a different way to different environments
coevolution
adapt in response to changes in each other
species
members resemble each other and have the capacity to mate
what was lamark's theory
events in an organisms life could cause changes in the organism
what is the hypothesis use and disuse?
structures that were used would develop more than those that were not
what is inheritance of acquired traits?
acquired traits were passed on to the offspring
darwin's theory
organisms changed over a long period of time through descent from a common ancestor
components of Darwin's theory
speciation, competition, overproduction, natural selection
speciation
variation exists within a species
competition
organisms compete for limited resources
overproduction
organisms produce more offspring than can survive
natural selection
organisms best adapted to the environmental conditions have the best change at long term survival
what is the key to survival?
the ability to adapt
adaptation
trait in an organisms that makes it better suited to its environment
what is species variation?
results in different gene combination or mutations
what are the types of adaptations?
morphological, physiological, behavioral,
morphological
physical trait
physiological
involves the metabolic process of an organism
behavioral
inherited behaviors that help an organism survive in a certain environment
mimicry
looking and acting like something in order to survive
paleoanthropology
study of human and pre-human fossils
hominids
oldest fossils with human-like characteristics
homo sapiens
genius species of modern humans
human traits
bipedal, intelligence, teeth
A
australpithecus
hominid groups
A. Afarenis, A. Africanus, A. Robustus,
types of modern humans
neaderthals, cro-magnons
why classify?
due to the large number of organisms on earth(10 million)
taxonomy
science of classifying organisms into groups
taxonomist
scientists who specialize in taxonomy
What did early systems do to name organisms?
used common names
why is it a problem to use common names when classifying organisms?
1) more than one common name cougar&mountain lion. 2) false relationships Jelly fish, cuttlefish (not actually fish)
Aristotle's system
2 kingdoms plant and animal
what is linnaeus' system?
classification systems based on anatomy. (3 kingdoms plant, animals, microbes)
binomial nomenclature
2 part name for classified organisms (genus species)
systematics
current word used to refer to taximony
systematics goal
to organize organisms into groups that have biological meaning
taxa
group into which organisms are classified into
modern criteria for classification
evolutionary relationships(phylogeny), genetics/DNA, reproductive potential, embryology
modern system domains
bacteria, archaea, eukarya
modern system kingdoms
eubacteria, archaebacteria, protists, fungi, plant, animal
how to remember the 7 major categories
king philip came over for good soup. (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species)
5 kingdom species
prokaryotic, eukaryotic, unicellular, multicellular, autotrophs, heterotrophs
what substance did Stanley miller produce from his experiment?
amino acids
a dinosaur bone is what type of fossil?
petrified remain
explain the difference between an analogous and homologous structures.
homologous - similar structure serves different functions
analogous - different structure serves similar function
geologic time can be divided into what two units of time?
epochs, and periods
in which er of geologic time do we presently live?
cenozoic
which era is the oldest?
precambrian
which era is the longest era of geologic time?
precambrian
in which era did dinosaurs live in?
mesozoic
in which era did the first land plant appear?
paleozoic
how did lamark explain the long necks of giraffes
grew longer necks to servive
what are two morphological adaptations in birds?
hollow bones, and types of beaks