Upgrade to remove ads
Blood Pressure Regulation (Exam 2)
Terms in this set (62)
Where is the cardiovascular control center?
Two types of cardiovascular control?
What does excitatory do?
controls SYMPATHETIC innervation
What does inhibitory do?
controls PARASYMPATHETIC innervation
(VAGUS X NERVE)
What does excitatory do to peripheral arteriole diameter?
What is vasoconstriction?
narrowing of blood vessels, which increases blood pressure
What is vasodilation?
the dilation of blood vessels, which decreases blood pressure
How does excitatory impact SV?
INCREASES because of DECREASE in ESV
How does excitatory impact CO?
How does excitatory impact TPR?
How does excitatory impact HR and strength?
How does inhibitory impact HR?
How does inhibitory impact CO?
What happens when you increase parasympathetic or sympathetic?
the opposite one will decrease it's actions
What happens when you decrease parasympathetic or sympathetic?
the opposite one will increase it's actions
What neurotransmitters are a part of excitatory?
Which receptors are a part of excitatory?
adrenergic receptors (beta)
What neurotransmitters are a part of inhibitory?
What receptors are a part of inhibitory?
What is mean arterial pressure equation?
diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure
What is pulse pressure?
What are baroreceptors?
sensitive to change in pressure
Where are baroreceptors?
What is TPR?
total peripheral resistance
When MAP INCREASES, what happens to baroreceptors?
baroreceptors increase their firing rate
What happens when baroreceptors start to increase their firing rate? (SYMPATHETIC)
decrease in sympathetic output (reduces strength)
What happens when baroreceptors start to increase their firing rate? (PARASYMPATHETIC)
increase in parasympathetic output (slows down pacemaker)
What happens to TPR when baroreceptors start firing?
What happens to carotid firing rate when arterial pressure rises?
carotid firing rate INCREASES
What happens to carotid firing rate when arterial pressure drops?
carotid firing rate DECREASES
What are chemoreceptors?
sensory cell or organ responsive to chemical stimuli
Where are chemoreceptors located?
What are chemoreceptors most sensitive to?
O2 and CO2
When do chemoreceptors respond?
What happens when you stimulate chemoreceptors?
leads to increased MAP
What happens when there is a very big drop in MAP with fast ENDOCRINE (hormonal) control?
the adrenal medulla will kick in adding EPI-
increase in TPR
increase in CO
increase in HR
What are examples of fast controls?
What is ANP?
atrial natriuretic peptide
When does ANP happen?
when there is an INCREASE in MAP, the volume in the atria INCREASES
ANP kicks in
decrease in MAP
How to decrease MAP?
How does hemorrhage lead to a decrease in MAP? (step by step)
2. DECREASE in blood volume
3. DECREASE in venous pressure
4. DECREASE in venous return
5. DECREASE in atrial pressure
6. DECREASE in EDV
7. DECREASE in SV
8. DECREASE in CO
9. DECREASE in MAP
How do you fix a hemorrhage?
fast nervous regulation, EPI will reinforce sympathetic nervous effects
How do you bring the MAP back up with hemorrhage? (step by step)
1. MAP DECREASES
2. firing of baroreceptors DECREASES
3. parasympathetic DECREASES
4. sympathetic INCREASES
5. INCREASE in HR
6. INCREASE in SV (b/c EDV up)
7. INCREASE in CO
8. INCREASE in TPR
9. MAP INCREASES
What is the immediate response to hemorrhage? (5 things)
HR knows nothing yet
TPR knows nothing yet
What are secondary responses to hemorrhage? (once MAP drops) ~ COMPENSATING
Baroreceptors wake up
sympathetic and EPI activated
CO goes back toward normal
TPR goes above normal b/c constriction
MAP UP towards normal
Why is hemorrhage life threatening?
inadequate perfusion (sending blood to tissues) of tissues
What happens without perfusion of tissues?
brain and heart don't get the blood they need, causes lots of damage
What happens if there is too much MAP?
ANP kicks in to cause vasoDILATION
parasympathetic kicks in causing vasoDILATION
What happens when there is prolonged hypertension?
kidneys increase fluid secretion
What blood pressure is considered hypertension?
What can happen with hypertension?
enlarged heart (heart failure)
hardening of arteries (MI, heart attack OR stroke OR kidney failure)
damage to eyes
What happens to CO with hypertension?
-> heart will have to compensate this by SQUEEZING harder to overcome the "hypertensive" MAP
How can hypertension be controlled?
calcium channel blockers
What happens when beta adrenergic is stimulated?
INCREASE rate of depolarization
INCREASES EC coupling
INCREASE SR release of Ca+
also INCREASE contracting strength
What happens when beta adrenergic is reduced?
DECREASE in rate of depolarization
What do beta blockers compete with?
EPI and NE
What are examples of beta blockers?
What happens when calcium channel blockers are stimulated in HEART?
DECREASES conducting velocity
What happens when calcium channel blockers are stimulated in SMOOTH MUSCLE?
causes relaxation, vasoDILATION
Examples of calcium channel blockers?
What happens when there is LEFT HEART failure?
(lungs can't drain because the left heart is full)
What happens when there is RIGHT HEART failure?
(tissues can't drain because the right heart is full)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Phys - Cardiac Output, Venous Return, and their Re…
Cardiovascular physiology 2: Cardiodynamics, Regul…
Physio Lab Exam 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Individual Variation in Drug Response
Med Error/Risk Reduction
Drugs for DM
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Basic Genetics Bio
Anatomy & Histology Test 3
Accounting Final Review Vocab
AST 105 Exam 1 Study Guide