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a characteristic of the human species before the advent of civilization
the ability to spread to various geographic settings and climate zones
the development of agriculture cause important changes in all the following except
the tendency to believe in many gods
why did the original inhabitants of australia not develop agriculture?
They were too isolated to learn of developments elsewhere until recently
once developed, metal tools were preferred over stone tools for all the following reasons except
they were easier for ordinary people to make at home
one difference between classical civilizations and river valley civilizations was that in classical civilizations
political organization was more elaborate
one difference between classical China and the earlier Huanghe river valley civilization was that
human sacrifices were suppressed
"dynasty" in Chinese history was
a family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation
The "Son of heaven" concept was designed to promote all of the following except:
priests' control over the state
all of the following constituted a function of government in Han China except
schools for peasant boys
Which of the following is a confucian belief
a good society has a heirarchy in both family and state
ceremony became an important part if upper-class chinese life beacuse
the chinese believed it would help unify society and prevent greed
Daoists would agree with Confucianists on all the following except
the importance of political activity
Whic of the following does not help to explain why India was more often invaded than China
hostility to warfare
The Indian caste system served to an extent as a politcal institution by
enforcing rules about social behavior
Compared to modern american ideas about democracy, athenian democracy was distinctive in
urging that all citizens participate directly in lawmaking and policymaking
from a confucian viewpoint, the roman empire might have been criticized for putting too much emphasis on
laws rather than trained officials
republican romans and democratic athens would have agreed that all of the following were politically important except
division of powers within the state
nomadic invaders often had military advantages over armies of empires because
they were more skilled as horsemen
The end of the gupta empire differed from the decline of Rome in that it did not involve
the introduction of a new religion for the majority
the "lessons" of late Han china and the late Roman Empire are that the decline of civilization, whether temporary or permanent
is not simple the result of attack of outside invaders
The eastern portion of the Roman Empire experienced less decline than the west for all of the following reasons except
the east resisted the spread of christianity
after 200. c.e an increasing number of people in Asia, Europe, and North Africa began to adapt to faiths characterized by
Which of the following cultures found in the Arabian peninsula was most significant in shaping the development of Islam?
Which of the following regions was Not affected by Islam during its early history ( prior to 750 c.e)
Which of the following statements concerning bedouin society is NOT accurate
Clans were commonly congregated together in larger tribal groupings
Which of the following statements about interclan relationships is most accurate
inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common
What was the result of inter-clan rivalries
it tended to weaken the bedouin in comparison to neighboring people and empires
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the decline of the abbasid dynasty by the ninth century A.D.?
the collapse of cities in the islamic heartland
what was the result of the civil wars following the death of al-rashid
succession disputes led to the build up of personal armies, often of slave soldiers
which of the following statements concerning the mercenaries armies of the later abbasid era is NOT accurate
despite their tendency toward random violence, the loyally defended the abbasid caliphs
what accounts for the disruption of the agricultural economy of the abbasid empire
spiraling taxation, the destruction of the irrigation works and pillaging by mercenary armies led to destruction of and abandonment of many villages
what changes occurred during the abbasid period with respect to women
the establishment of the harem
between 800-1500 as the frequency and intensity of contact with the outside world increased, which of the following had the most significant impact on sub-saharan africa?
the arrival of Islam
What was one major difference between african civilization and other post classical societies?
african civilizations were built somewhat less clearly on prior precedent than was the case in other post-classical societies
which of the following statements concerning political and religious universality in africa is most accurate?
neither universal states nor religion characterize africa but both christianity and islam did find adherents
african societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration o political power and authority were referred to as
what was the function of secret societies in africa?
because their membership cut across lineage divisions, they acted to maintain stability within the community and diminish clan feuds
which of the following statements best describes the indigenous religion of much of sub-saharan africa
animistic religion, belief in the power of natural forces personified deities
which of the following statements concerning africa's economy is untrue
much of the region lacked a market economy and was based on self-sufficient agricultural units
Which of the following was not a belief shared by practitioners of many indigenous african religions
a moral code based on a supreme god
the puritanical reform movements of the almovorads and almohadis arose among what groups of people in africa
the berbers, native desert dwellers of north africa
which of the following is most correctly seen as a direct continuation of the roman empire?
the significance of the byzantine empire included all the following except
the empire's conquest of the ottoman empire and its inclusion of of all the middle east
which of the following does not represent a similarity between the spread of civilization in eastern and western europe?
northern kingdom dominated both areas
which of the following represents a difference between the spread of civilization in eastern and western europe
they produced different versions of christianity, culturally as well and organizationally separate
what was the difference in the military organization of Byzantine and western roman empires?
the byzantine empire recruited armies from the middle east
the post classical period in western history between the fall of roman empire and the 15th century is referred to as
which of the following statements concerning the impact of christianity on polytheistic religion in western europe is most accurate
the process of conversion produced a religious blend in which beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits coexisted with christianity
following the fall of rome, where was the center of the post-classical west
the central plains in northern europe
who were the scandinavian invaders who disrupted the development of durable political institutions in the medieval west until the 10th century
which of the following statements concerning intellectual activity of the medieval west prior to the 8th century
with the few literate people concentrated in monasteries, little was achieved other than copying older manuscripts
the system that was described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers was called
which of the following statements concerning the agricultural laborers of the medieval west is not true
they could be bought and sold by their landlors
which of the following statements about the manorial system is not true
it was technologically unsophisticated
during the post classical period, societies in the americas
remained entirely separate from those of the old west
which of the following was not characteristic of american civilization during the post classical period
the northern nomadic people who entered central mexico following the decline of teotihuacan were the
what was the relationship between the toltecs and their predecessors in central mexico
the toltecs adopted many cultural features from their predecessors to which they added a strong military ethic and human sacrifice
after the sack of tula, the center of population and political power in mexico shifted to
the valley of mexico and the shores of chain of lakes in that basin
the period of political disorder and chaotic warfare that followed the Qin-han era is referred to as the
era of division
which of the following statements concerning urbanization in china during the tang song era is most accurate
chinese urbanization mushroomed during the the tang-song era with higher proportion of population living in cities
the made possible the rapid revival of empire under the Tang?
the rebuilding of the bureaucracy using confucian ideology
what made the reunification of China under the first sui emperor possible?
the support of the nomadic warrior elite
what was the primary reform enacted during the reign of the first sui emperor
the creation of graineries to relieve the threat of famine
what regions of Asia were most drawn to chinese cultural and political models
the agrarian societies in the east and south
what were the reforms enacted in 646 that intended to thoroughly incorporate chinese culture and political structure in japanese society
what was the central purpose of the reforms of 646 in japan
to remake the japanese monarch into an absolutist chines-style emperor
what group so threatened the security of the japanese imperial family that they in the 8th century moved to heian?
what was the immediate impact of the imperial move to heian?
the aristocracy was restored to counterbalance the power of the buddhist monasteries and took over most of the positions in the central government
what was the military organization of the heian government in japan
local members of the aristocracy were ordered to organize militia forces
during what period did the nomads of central asia impact the other global civilizations of the eastern hemispheres?
1200 to 1400
which of the following statements concerning leadership in mongol society is most correct
leaders were elected by free males and held office for as long as they could keep it
in the early 12th century, the qin kingdom of northern china was defeated by a mongol confederation under teh leadership of
which of the following statements concerning chiggis khan's early life is most accurate?
following his father's death, he was abandoned by many followers and captured by a rival tribe
which of the following weapons was NOT part of the arsenal of the mongol army under chingiss khan
which of the following was not a symptom of the decline in the arabic caliphate by 1400
the decline of the sufis
which of the following statements concerning arab trade after 1100 is most accurate
although arabic trade was reduced, muslims remained active in world markets
which of the following statements about the political fragmentation of the arabic world in the 1400s is the most accurate
after the fall of the abbasid caliphate, the emerging ottoman empire soon mastered most of the lands of the old caliphate plus the byzantine corner
which of the following statements concerning the ottoman empire is most accurate
the expansionist power of the ottoman empire was very real but the focus was on conquest and administration overshadowed wider commercial ambitions
which of the following statements concerning teh ottoman empire is most accurate
turkish rulers did not promote maritime trade as vigorously as the arabs
which of the following civilizations first attempted to fill the commercial vacuum created by the decline in arabic trade
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