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146 terms

AP world history midterm

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Hunting and gathering societies
organize rather small groups into political units
the paleolithic age refers to
the period in which simple stone tools were developed
a characteristic of the human species before the advent of civilization
the ability to spread to various geographic settings and climate zones
the development of agriculture cause important changes in all the following except
the tendency to believe in many gods
The neolithic revolution occurred first in
the middle east
why did the original inhabitants of australia not develop agriculture?
They were too isolated to learn of developments elsewhere until recently
once developed, metal tools were preferred over stone tools for all the following reasons except
they were easier for ordinary people to make at home
a society is almost certainly a civilization if
it practices sedentary agriculture
the development of writing
helps explain why governments could become more formal and bureaucratic
the earliest know writing in a civilization first developed in
the middle east
one difference between classical civilizations and river valley civilizations was that in classical civilizations
political organization was more elaborate
one difference between classical China and the earlier Huanghe river valley civilization was that
human sacrifices were suppressed
"dynasty" in Chinese history was
a family that passed the imperial title from generation to generation
The "Son of heaven" concept was designed to promote all of the following except:
priests' control over the state
the Qin dynasty differed from the Zhou in that
it was more centralized
all of the following constituted a function of government in Han China except
schools for peasant boys
chinese views on nature emphasized
harmony and balance
Which of the following is a confucian belief
a good society has a heirarchy in both family and state
ceremony became an important part if upper-class chinese life beacuse
the chinese believed it would help unify society and prevent greed
Daoists would agree with Confucianists on all the following except
the importance of political activity
Whic of the following does not help to explain why India was more often invaded than China
hostility to warfare
The aryan conquerers brought to india
distinctive religious ideas
the mauryan dynasty differed from the gupta dynasty in that
it ruled larger territory
India's political tradition
stressed teh importance of regional and local units
The Indian caste system served to an extent as a politcal institution by
enforcing rules about social behavior
Confucian and Hindu values
helped justify and preserve social inequality
Hindu ethics involved
emphasis on an individual carrying out the obligations of life
Hinduism urged that
all living creatures participated in divine essence
Buddhism differed from hinduism by not believing
in the caste system
"Nirvana" meants
full union with the divine essence
If the greek genius was politics, then the roman genius was
engineering
the two mediterranean powers fighting during the punic wars were
Carthage and Rome
Compared to modern american ideas about democracy, athenian democracy was distinctive in
urging that all citizens participate directly in lawmaking and policymaking
Greek politics resembled Indian politics in
the tendency of regional fragmentation
from a confucian viewpoint, the roman empire might have been criticized for putting too much emphasis on
laws rather than trained officials
republican romans and democratic athens would have agreed that all of the following were politically important except
division of powers within the state
the senate of republican rome particularily represented
the landed aristocracy
roman emperors tried to prevent population disorders by
organizing food supplies and distribution
the roman empire
tolerated local political and religious diversity
the socratic method emphasized the importance of
questioning
the first kingdoms in eastern africa below the Sahara showed the influence of
Egypt and Hellenism
nomadic invaders often had military advantages over armies of empires because
they were more skilled as horsemen
by 600 c.e and early civilizations was beginning to take shape in
Central America
Japan developed a religion called
Shintoism
The end of the gupta empire differed from the decline of Rome in that it did not involve
the introduction of a new religion for the majority
which of the following best survived the Hun Invasions of India?
Hindu beliefs
One important early symptom of Rome's decline was
the drop in population due to a series of plagues
the "lessons" of late Han china and the late Roman Empire are that the decline of civilization, whether temporary or permanent
is not simple the result of attack of outside invaders
The eastern portion of the Roman Empire experienced less decline than the west for all of the following reasons except
the east resisted the spread of christianity
after 200. c.e an increasing number of people in Asia, Europe, and North Africa began to adapt to faiths characterized by
monotheism
Islam means
submission
The arabic camel nomads were referred to as
Bedouin
Which of the following cultures found in the Arabian peninsula was most significant in shaping the development of Islam?
Bedouin
Which of the following regions was Not affected by Islam during its early history ( prior to 750 c.e)
South America
Which of the following statements concerning bedouin society is NOT accurate
Clans were commonly congregated together in larger tribal groupings
Leader of Bedouin clans were called
shaykhs
Which of the following groups was Not a component of bedouin society
artisans
Which of the following statements about interclan relationships is most accurate
inter-clan violence over control of water and pasturage was common
What was the result of inter-clan rivalries
it tended to weaken the bedouin in comparison to neighboring people and empires
what clan was responsible for the founding of Mecca?
Ummayyad
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the decline of the abbasid dynasty by the ninth century A.D.?
the collapse of cities in the islamic heartland
which of the following groups did not revolt against the abbasid rule?
slaves
what was the result of the civil wars following the death of al-rashid
succession disputes led to the build up of personal armies, often of slave soldiers
which of the following statements concerning the mercenaries armies of the later abbasid era is NOT accurate
despite their tendency toward random violence, the loyally defended the abbasid caliphs
what accounts for the disruption of the agricultural economy of the abbasid empire
spiraling taxation, the destruction of the irrigation works and pillaging by mercenary armies led to destruction of and abandonment of many villages
what changes occurred during the abbasid period with respect to women
the establishment of the harem
between 800-1500 as the frequency and intensity of contact with the outside world increased, which of the following had the most significant impact on sub-saharan africa?
the arrival of Islam
What was one major difference between african civilization and other post classical societies?
african civilizations were built somewhat less clearly on prior precedent than was the case in other post-classical societies
which of the following statements concerning political and religious universality in africa is most accurate?
neither universal states nor religion characterize africa but both christianity and islam did find adherents
african societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration o political power and authority were referred to as
stateless
what was the function of secret societies in africa?
because their membership cut across lineage divisions, they acted to maintain stability within the community and diminish clan feuds
which of the following statements best describes the indigenous religion of much of sub-saharan africa
animistic religion, belief in the power of natural forces personified deities
which of the following statements concerning africa's economy is untrue
much of the region lacked a market economy and was based on self-sufficient agricultural units
Which of the following was not a belief shared by practitioners of many indigenous african religions
a moral code based on a supreme god
what region of africa was first converted to islam by 700 c.e
north africa
the puritanical reform movements of the almovorads and almohadis arose among what groups of people in africa
the berbers, native desert dwellers of north africa
which of the following is most correctly seen as a direct continuation of the roman empire?
Byzantine empire
the byzantine empire lasted approzimately
500 - 1450
which of the following territories was always part of the byzantine empire?
balkan peninsula
the significance of the byzantine empire included all the following except
the empire's conquest of the ottoman empire and its inclusion of of all the middle east
what was the most important "stepchild" of the byzantine empire?
russia
which of the following does not represent a similarity between the spread of civilization in eastern and western europe?
northern kingdom dominated both areas
which of the following represents a difference between the spread of civilization in eastern and western europe
they produced different versions of christianity, culturally as well and organizationally separate
the capital of the byzantine empire and its commercial center was located at
constantinople
the emperor responsible for a surge in construction in constantinople was
constantine
what was the difference in the military organization of Byzantine and western roman empires?
the byzantine empire recruited armies from the middle east
the post classical period in western history between the fall of roman empire and the 15th century is referred to as
middle ages
which of the following statements concerning the impact of christianity on polytheistic religion in western europe is most accurate
the process of conversion produced a religious blend in which beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits coexisted with christianity
following the fall of rome, where was the center of the post-classical west
the central plains in northern europe
who were the scandinavian invaders who disrupted the development of durable political institutions in the medieval west until the 10th century
vikings
which of the following statements concerning intellectual activity of the medieval west prior to the 8th century
with the few literate people concentrated in monasteries, little was achieved other than copying older manuscripts
the system that was described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers was called
manorialism
agricultural laborers under the jurisdiction of the aristocratic landowners were called
serfs
which of the following statements concerning the agricultural laborers of the medieval west is not true
they could be bought and sold by their landlors
the moldboard was
a technological innovation, a plow that allowed deeper turning of the soil
which of the following statements about the manorial system is not true
it was technologically unsophisticated
during the post classical period, societies in the americas
remained entirely separate from those of the old west
which of the following was not characteristic of american civilization during the post classical period
monotheistic practices
the northern nomadic people who entered central mexico following the decline of teotihuacan were the
toltecs
the toltec capital was established at
Tula
what was the relationship between the toltecs and their predecessors in central mexico
the toltecs adopted many cultural features from their predecessors to which they added a strong military ethic and human sacrifice
how did aztecs view the cultural achievements of the toltecs
as the givers of civilization
the toltec empire lasted until
1150
after the sack of tula, the center of population and political power in mexico shifted to
the valley of mexico and the shores of chain of lakes in that basin
the people who succeeded the toltecs were the
aztecs
around what year did the aztecs migrate to the central valley of mexico?
1325
the period of political disorder and chaotic warfare that followed the Qin-han era is referred to as the
era of division
what was the capital of the southern song dynasty
hangzhou
which of the following statements concerning urbanization in china during the tang song era is most accurate
chinese urbanization mushroomed during the the tang-song era with higher proportion of population living in cities
the dynasty that ended the period of political chaos after the fall of the qin-han was the
Sui
the made possible the rapid revival of empire under the Tang?
the rebuilding of the bureaucracy using confucian ideology
the man responsible for the creation of the sui dynasty was
Wendi
which kingdom was conquered by Wendi in 589?
Chen
what made the reunification of China under the first sui emperor possible?
the support of the nomadic warrior elite
what was the primary reform enacted during the reign of the first sui emperor
the creation of graineries to relieve the threat of famine
unlike his father, the second sui emperor favored
the confucian scholar gentry class
what regions of Asia were most drawn to chinese cultural and political models
the agrarian societies in the east and south
when did the chinese influence on japan peak
7th and 8th century b.c.e.
what is the name of the nature spirits of japan?
Kami
what religion played a key role in the transmission of chinese civilization to japan
Buddhism
in which of the following japanese periods was chinese cultural influence most significant?
Taika
what were the reforms enacted in 646 that intended to thoroughly incorporate chinese culture and political structure in japanese society
taika
what was the central purpose of the reforms of 646 in japan
to remake the japanese monarch into an absolutist chines-style emperor
what group so threatened the security of the japanese imperial family that they in the 8th century moved to heian?
buddhist monks
what was the immediate impact of the imperial move to heian?
the aristocracy was restored to counterbalance the power of the buddhist monasteries and took over most of the positions in the central government
what was the military organization of the heian government in japan
local members of the aristocracy were ordered to organize militia forces
during what period did the nomads of central asia impact the other global civilizations of the eastern hemispheres?
1200 to 1400
in most ways, the mongols epitomized what type of society and culture?
nomadic
what was the basic unit of mongol society
the tribe
which of the following statements concerning leadership in mongol society is most correct
leaders were elected by free males and held office for as long as they could keep it
in the early 12th century, the qin kingdom of northern china was defeated by a mongol confederation under teh leadership of
kublai khan
which of the following statements concerning chiggis khan's early life is most accurate?
following his father's death, he was abandoned by many followers and captured by a rival tribe
chinggis khan was elected khagan (supreme ruler) of the mongol tribes in what year
1206
the mongol military forces were
entirely calvary
mongol armies were divided into units called
tumens
which of the following weapons was NOT part of the arsenal of the mongol army under chingiss khan
chain mail
which of the following was not a symptom of the decline in the arabic caliphate by 1400
the decline of the sufis
by what date had the arabs been virtually excluded from european trade
1100
which of the following statements concerning arab trade after 1100 is most accurate
although arabic trade was reduced, muslims remained active in world markets
which of the following statements about the political fragmentation of the arabic world in the 1400s is the most accurate
after the fall of the abbasid caliphate, the emerging ottoman empire soon mastered most of the lands of the old caliphate plus the byzantine corner
which of the following statements concerning the ottoman empire is most accurate
the expansionist power of the ottoman empire was very real but the focus was on conquest and administration overshadowed wider commercial ambitions
what area represented a new conquest for the ottoman empire in the late 1400s?
southeastern europe
which of the following statements concerning teh ottoman empire is most accurate
turkish rulers did not promote maritime trade as vigorously as the arabs
which of the following civilizations first attempted to fill the commercial vacuum created by the decline in arabic trade
china
what chinese dynasty succeeded the mongol yuan dynasty in china
Ming
what was the innovation launched by the ming dynasty?
mounting huge state sponsored trading expeditions throughout asia and beyond