world history study-guide for 3-11-19

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anesthetic
drug that prevents pain during surgery
enclosure
the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers
james watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819).
smelt
separate iron from its ore
explain why industrial revolution was a turning point for world history?
The Industrial Revolution was a fundamental change in the way goods were produced, and altered the way people lived. The Industrial Revolution was a major turning point in world history as it resulted in a complete change in society on all levels.
explain how agricultural revolution helped population increase?
New farming techniques and improved livestock breeding led to amplified food production. This allowed a spike in population and increased health.
list and discuss new technologies that helped trigger the Industrial Revolution
seed drill & engine
capital
money for investment
enterprise
A business organization in such areas as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories.
entrepreneurs
people who risk their time, money, and other resources to start and manage a business
eli whitney
Invented the cotton gin
turn pike
road built by a private company that charges a toll to use it
list and explain the 3 conditions that paved the way for the industrial revolution
1. stable government that supported economic growth
2. didn't have river tolls like other European countries
3. strong navy to protect the empire
list and explain what led to the advantages of British textile industry?
Britain has the advantage of plentiful resources such as natural minerals, natural ports, and navigable rivers
why was the development of railroads important to the industrial revolution?
The development of the railroads was important because it made the movement of goods faster and cheaper.
urbanization
Movement of people from rural areas to cities
tenement
multistory building divided into crowded apartments
labor unions
An organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions
Thomas Malthus
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.
Jeremy Benthum
british philosopher who advocated utilitarianism
Utilitarianism
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
Socialism
a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
means of production
farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produce and distribute goods
Robert Owen
a Utopian who set up a model community at his cotton mill in Scotland
Communism
A system in which governments led by a small elite controlled all economic and political life
Karl Marx
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudalism. Believed in a classless society.
Proletrariat
working class
social democracy
political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden violent overthrow of the system
explain response to laizze-faire economics during 19th century
"hands off" reproach
explain what stuart mills sees as a proper role for government
wanted government to improve hard lives of working class
explain what early socialists believed
wanted all people to work as a whole
What did Karl Marx believe was the future of the proleturait?
workers would take control over employers