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had the goal of a strong army; used the battle cry "Return with your shield or on it!"; women received physical training so they would produce strong, healthy babies


means "rule by the few"; form of government that Athens and Sparta had in common


strong leaders who came to power and ruled in Athens


a great orator who wanted to rebuild Athens after the Persian Wars


Greek stories about gods and heros; sometimes used to explain things in nature

Greek gods

were human-like; immoral, jealous, vengeful, selfish

ancient Greek women

not allowed to vote or participate in government meetings


a city state that used an early form of democracy where male citizens attended meetings of the Assembly

Salamis Bay

important battle where the Greeks fought the Persians


Greek philosopher who was the first to use the scientific method; tutored Alexander the Great

The Muses

the goddesses of the arts


Greek poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey

optical illusion

when an object appears to take a shape it doesn't really have


art form that the Greeks considered the greatest


servants who accompanied wealthy boys to school in ancient Greece


means lover of wisdom


led the Persian troops against Greece


temple on top of the Acropolis; in the Middle Ages it was used as a Christian church


used by Greeks to write on a wax coated tablet


Greek philosopher who taught his students by using questions


Greek marketplace that had open-air buildings called porches


"Father of History"


wrote an oath that is taken by many doctors


hill overlooking Athens that was the center of religious life


ancient Greek festival of athletic games


the southern portion of the Greek peninsula

Peloponnesian War

A war, lasting from 431 to 404 B.C., in which Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies

Mt. Olympus

Mythical home of the highest Greek gods and goddesses

The Academy

the school Plato started

comedy and tragedy

the most common types of Greek drama

Greek language

the most important contribution the Greek culture gave to the Western world

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