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Cardiovascular System Study Guide
Terms in this set (99)
What are the 3 functions of the cardiovascular system?
1. Transports nutrients to body cells.
-Blood carries oxygen and dissolved food (nutrients) to each cell in the body.
2. Removes waste.
-Blood picks up waste produced by cells and carries them to special organs for removal from the body.
3. Fights Disease.
-White blood cells destroy bacteria and viruses.
What are the 3 tissues of the cardiovascular system?
-The heart is a powerful muscle that pumps blood throughout the body.
2. Blood Vessels.
-Blood is a liquid tissue containing cells that carry nutrients (dissolved food & oxygen) to each blood cell.
What are the 3 types of blood vessels?
1. Arteries- Directs blood away from the heart.
2. Veins- Directs blood towards the heart.
3. Capillaries- Smallest vessels in the body.
Which chamber is the most muscular?
The left ventricle because it pumps the heart.
Is the left or right ventricle thicker?
The left because when there's more blood to pump to more spaces.
What are the vessels that carry blood towards the heart?
What are the vessels that connect the arteries?
What is the type of blood vessels that contains valves?
What is another name for the cardiovascular system?
The circulatory system.
What are the 3 things carried throughout the body by the cardiovascular system?
Waste, disease, & fighting cells.
What are the upper chambers called?
What are the lower chambers called?
How many atria and ventricles are there?
Atria: 2. (Right and left)
Ventricles: 2. (Right and left)
What are the functions of the atrium?
Receives blood and then pumps the blood INTO the heart.
What are the functions of the ventricles?
Pumps blood OUT of the heart.
The group of cells in the right atrium that sends signals to make the heart contract is called what?
What are the 2 main phases of how the heart works?
1. The heart muscle relaxes and fills with blood.
2. The heart muscle contracts and pumps blood forward.
What is the thick muscular wall that divides the heart into 2 sides?
What is the septum's purpose?
It prevents oxygen-rich blood and oxygen-poor blood from mixing in the heart.
Where does each side of the heart pump blood to?
Right: To the lungs.
Left: To the rest of the body.
Which side of the heart contains oxygen-poor blood and which side contains oxygen-rich blood?
The heart weighs less than a...
The heart is slightly bigger than a fist or slightly smaller?
EVERYDAY, the heart BEATS over ________ gallons of blood.
The heart PUMPS over _______ gallons of blood.
The heart is in the center of the chest and slightly towards the right or left hand side?
The left hand side.
The cardiovascular system takes away waste from __________________________.
Each individual cell.
The heart is hollow and divided into four _______.
What is the atrium known as and why?
The filing chambers because they RECEIVE blood into the heart.
Inside the lungs, the arteries branch out ultimately leading the blood through the _________.
Once in the capillaries, the blood picks up its cargo of _______.
The left ventricle pumps blood to the __________.
From the aorta, the blood is carried into _________ arteries.
The blood in the smaller arteries then branch throughout the body, ultimately leading to the ___________.
Once in the capillaries, the blood drops off its cargo of oxygen and picks up _____________.
What do the valves do?
Valves keep the blood flowing in one direction.
What causes the rhythmic sounds of the heartbeat?
The valves closing.
Which chambers are upper and which are the lower?
What is the biggest artery?
The Arch of the Aorta.
Where do the arteries carry blood?
All arteries in the body carry blood AWAY from the heart.
Where do the veins carry blood?
All veins in the body carry blood TOWARDS the heart.
Facing the heart, which is the right and left?
When facing the heart, the usual left side is actually the right, which means the usual right is the left.
What are the phases of the heart?
1. Superior Vena Cava
2. Inferior Vena Cava
3. Right Atrium
5. Right Ventricle
7. Pulmonary Artery
8. Pulmonary Veins
9. Left Atrium
11. Left Ventricle
13. Arch of Aorta
Superior Vena Cava
The second largest vein that gets blood from the upper body.
Inferior Vena Cava
The largest vein in the human body and gets blood from the lower part of the body.
Receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it to the right ventricle.
Keeps blood flowing in one direction.
Pumps oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.
Carries oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs.
Delivers oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle.
Receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium and pumps to the rest of the body.
Arch of Aorta
The largest artery. (Aorta)
Carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body.
What are tissues made of?
What is the "lub-dub" sound that your heart makes?
The opening and closing of the valves.
What is a heart murmur?
A damaged valve.
What are the three functions of the cardiovascular system?
1. Transports nutrients to body cells.
2. Removes waste.
3. Fights disease.
What are three basic tissues of the cardiovascular system? What is their functions and structural differences?
-The heart is a powerful muscle a bit larger than a fist that pumps blood throughout the body.
2. Blood Vessels:
-Arteries, veins, and capillaries are the three kinds of blood vessels through which blood flows throughout the body.
-Blood is a liquid tissue containing cells that carry nutrients (food + oxygen) to each blood cell.
What are the three types of blood vessels?
1. Arteries- Takes blood AWAY from the heart.
2. Veins- Takes blood TOWARDS the heart.
3. Capillaries- Smallest blood vessels in the body.
What is blood pressure?
The pressure of the blood in the circulatory system shown in two different measurements:
Systolic and diastolic pressure.
What is systolic pressure?
The pressure when ventricles contract and push blood into arteries. (Pulse)
What is diastolic pressure?
Pressure in vessels when the heat relaxes between beats. This is the minimum pressure based on vessels.
What is hypertension?
High blood pressure which weakens the walls of blood vessels leading to strokes or heart attacks.
What is an aneurysm?
A weakened vessel about to burst open.
What is a sphygmomanometer?
A medical instrument that measures blood pressure.
What is the source of the "lub dub" sound?
The valves opening and closing.
How much percent of blood is plasma?
How much percent of blood are red blood cells?
How much percent of blood are white blood cells and platelets?
What is the liquid part of blood?
10% of plasma is made out of __________.
90% of plasma is ___________.
What are the five types of materials that are carried in plasma?
3. Vitamins & Minerals
4. Chemical Messengers/Hormones
5. Wastes (Carbon dioxide, lactic acid, etc)
What job do red blood cells perform in the body?
Carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body.
Where are red blood cells produced?
In bone marrow.
What do red blood cells look like?
Disc-shaped that is flat and doesn't contain a nucleus.
What is hemoglobin, and where is it found?
An iron-containing protein that binds chemically to oxygen molecules and are found in red blood cells.
When do red blood cells become bright red?
When hemoglobin combines with oxygen.
Mature red blood cells have no _______.
Without a nucleus, what can red blood cells not do?
Cannot reproduce or live long. (About 120 days)
What is the job of white blood cells?
What are platelets?
Cell fragments that help clot blood.
How does a blood clot form?
Platelets collect and stick to the vessel at the site of the wound. Then, fibers form a net to trap blood cells to prevent blood loss.
What is Anemia and what effect does it have on the body?
An iron-deficiency illness caused by a shortage of red blood cells or hemoglobin. If someone has this disease, blood would not carry enough oxygen making the person weak and fatigued.
What do you predict would happen to the total number of white blood cells when the body is fighting a disease or infection?
Their numbers increase to fight off the disease/infection.
What is hemophilia and how does this disease impact someone?
A genetic disorder where someone's blood cannot clot. Even if they get a tiny cut, they are able to bleed to death.
How does a heart attack occur?
A heart attack occurs when a coronary artery is blocked.
What are three major blood circulation pathways? Where do these pathways carry blood to? Why does blood travel to these areas?
1. Pulmonary Circulation:
-Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart. Blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide into the lungs.
2. Systemic Circulation:
-Largest blood pathway in the body.
-Flow of blood from the heart to the body tissue and back to the heart.
3. Coronary Circulation:
-Flow of blood from the aorta to the heart.
What are the two sub pathways? Where do these pathways carry blood to? Why does blood travel to these areas?
1. Renal Circulation:
-Flow of blood to the kidneys to remove waste.
2. Portal Circulation:
-Flow of blood to the digestive organs to pick up food nutrients.
What is a pulse?
Pressure wave of blood.
What is a pulse rate?
Number of beats per minute.
What factors influence pulse rate?
Emotions, posture, activity.
What is a stroke?
Blood clot in the brain.
What is atherosclerosis and what causes it?
Build up of waxy-like substance in arteries (bad cholesterol), caused by heredity, inactivity, stress, diet.
What are erythrocytes?
Red blood cells.
What are leucocytes?
White blood cells.
What is a pacemaker?
A pacemaker is a medical device that generates electrical impulses to contract the heart.
What is fibrin?
Tiny fiber that trap blood cells; help form a blood clot.
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