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Exam 2 - Marshall
Terms in this set (33)
Which of the following VFAs is largely converted to ketones during absorption through the rumen epithelium?
What VFA is the main precursor for lipogenesis?
Which is the only VFA that makes a net contribution to gluconeogenesis?
What is the intermediate through which all carbohydrates must pass before being converted to VFA, carbon dioxide and methane?
What is the metabolic pathway that results in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate?
An increase in feeding frequency and level of intake will decrease propionate production.
False, it will increase it
Feeding low quality roughage results in an increase in acetate production compared with feeding high quality roughage.
Grinding, chopping and pelleting of forages will decrease acetate production and increase propionate
A mature forage will increase the acetate:propionate ratio compared with an immature forage.
Steam flaking concentrates will decrease propionate production.
False, it increases it
What does a microbial cell need in order to grow?
Carbon skeleton, nitrogen, and energy
Feeding an increased amount of grain will decrease acetate, and increase propionate and butyrate
Sugars and starches are fermented quickly compared to cellulose causing an increase in propionate
VFA concentrations increase as more sugars and starches are rapidly fermented
Which bacteria are favored due to a decrease in pH and liquid dilution rate
Found in highest concentrations in
-100% hay diets
-Long hay compared to pellet
Found in highest concentrations
-High grain diets (80%)
-Forage is fed as a pellet compared to long hay
Stays relatively the same between high forage and high grain diets but is highest in finely ground forage
Which VFA is oxidized via the TCA cycle or used for fatty acid synthesis?
What comprises more then 80% of ketones formed and is used for fatty acid synthesis in adipose and mammary gland tissue?
What % of propionate is converted to lactic acid through the rumen epithelium?
Continuous Culture fermentation
Done in lab (in-vitro) under anaerobic conditions because it mimics the rumen, it has a 7 day adaption period and 3 day collection period
Liquid phase measurements of continuous cultural fermentation
NH3-N, pH, VFA
Solid phase measurements of continuous cultural fermentation
DM, ash, CP, NDF, ADF, purines
Bacterial Pellet phase measurements of continuous cultural fermentation
0.4% DM is max level tolerated
-Reduced DM intake
-Negative carcass characteristics
incoordination and ataxia
What is hydrogen sulfide toxicity reduced by?
Bismuth Subsalicylate (BSS) the active ingredient in pepto bismol
Decrease in ruminal pH occurs when
Increased microbial activity, increase in VFA formation, and when VFA are acidic
Increase in ruminal pH occurs when
VFA are absorbed, saliva is produced during mastication
Two forms of in vitro studies
Continuous culture fermentation and batch culture fermentation
Are secondary metabolite molds found in fermented feeds toxic to animals plants or microbes?
Reduction in organic matter, fiber, and protein digestion change fermentation end products and nutrient flow as well as reduce bacterial protein synthesis
POTENTIAL NEGATIVE IMPACT on animal health and performance because of the antimicrobial effects
Genomic analysis of microbial DNA that is extracted directly from communities in environmental samples
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