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ionic bond

a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion

covalent (molecular) bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

potential energy well

a region in which an object has a lower potential energy than in all the surrounding regions.

polar bond

A type of covalent bond between two atoms in which electrons are shared unequally.

octet rule

rule that states that atoms tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in their valence shells, giving them the same electronic configuration as a noble gas

molecular formula

formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule

ionic formula unit

1 calcium ion and 2 chloride ions

structural formula

A chemical formula that shows how the atoms and bonds in a molecule are arranged

empirical formula

chemical formula that indicates the relative proportions of the elements in a molecule rather than the actual number of atoms

VSEPR model

A model used to predict the shape of a molecule, based on the assumption that all negatively charged valence electrons repel each other.

resonance structure

Any of two or more possible structures of the same compound that have identical geometry but different arrangements of their paired electrons

metallic bond

The chemical bond characteristic of metals, in which mobile valence electrons are shared among atoms in a usually stable crystalline

orbital hybridization

a procedure whereby orbitals of intermediate energy and desired directional character are constructed.

intermolecular force

the force between two molecules


a molecule that has two poles (negative & positive)

hydrogen bond

a chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom, especially a nitrogen, oxygen, or flourine atom, usually of another molecule

London forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles

transient dipole

an electron-rich structure. chances of cloud being symmetric are low

induced dipole

short-lived, temporary dipole

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