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The ________ theory of personality has its basis in the theories of learning, and focuses on the effects of environment on one's personal characteristics and actions.

short-term memory

The conscious mind can be compared to

preconscious level

"What did you have for lunch an hour ago?" Before I asked you that question, the information was in your

Steal a hot dog from the vendor on the corner.

You are quite hungry but don't have a dime to your name. If you were described as "all id and only id'" what would you do?


There were three friends. Maybe you've heard of them! Harry was rational, logical, and cunning. Hermione was rule oriented, moral, and always ethical. Ron was pleasure seeking, found it hard to delay gratification, and usually just did what he wanted. According to Freud, Harry was mostly

id; ego, superego

The job of the ________ is to find practical ways for the ________ to get its pleasure needs met without offending the morality of the ________.

ego and superego; id

In Freud's personality theory, the ________ are in conflict and the ________ must mediate between them.


Dan plays the trumpet, is on the debate team, bites his nails, and chews gum. Freud might say Dan was fixated in the ________ stage

Oscar had an anal expulsive personality and Felix had an anal retentive personality.

In the classic sitcom The Odd Couple, it was amazing that Oscar and Felix got along because Oscar was such a slob and Felix was so obsessively neat. From a Freudian perspective, what could be said about the way these two men made it through the anal stage of development?


The Freudian stage in which boys must resolve the Oedipus complex is the ________ stage

phallic stage

According to Freud, the stage in which children develop a marked attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and become jealous of the same-sex parent is the

castration anxiety

Sigmund Freud proposed that little boys' fears that their fathers may retaliate against them for forbidden sexual and aggressive impulses may lead to

Oedipus complex

Four-year-old Larry squeezes between his Mommy and Daddy as they sit together on the couch. He cuddles with Mommy and pushes Daddy away. This illustrates which Freudian concept?

identification with the same-sex parent

What did Freud perceive as the outcome of successful resolution of the Oedipus complex

mostly girls

Jill is an 8-year-old girl who is having a birthday party. According to Freud, since Jill is in the latency period, whom would you expect to be at her party?

Psychodynamic concepts are difficult to test.

Your teacher organizes a debate on Freudian theory. You are assigned to be on the anti-Freud side and, therefore, must point out problems in the theory. Which of the following will be at the top of your list?

reciprocal determinism

Albert Bandura's notion that people are affected by their environment but can also influence that environment is known as


A baseball player's son is quite talented; he has received lots of awards over the years. When he gets up to bat he expects to get a hit, and when he is in the field he expects to make every catch. According to Bandura, what characteristic does this young man seem to have?


Which of the following concepts is NOT found in the humanistic perspective of personality?

real self close to ideal self

Which of the following descriptions is likely to fit the quality of self-actualization?

conditional positive regard

Carl Rogers believed people question themselves and experience negative effects on their self-concept when they receive

introverts; extraverts

An investigation of students' housing preferences would probably show that single rooms are preferred by _______ whereas suites are preferred by _______


Ellen has been described as creative, imaginative, curious, artistic, and nonconforming. She is likely to obtain an elevated score on a questionnaire designed to measure

identical; fraternal

Monozygotic twins are ________, while dizygotic twins are ________.

the heritability of traits

Research on ________ supports the hypothesis that personality differences are due in part to genetic differences.

a projective test

When Anna looks at some modern artwork at the museum, she often thinks she sees human figures or faces and likes to make up stories about them. When she tells the stories to her friend, her friend says that the stories reflect Anna's unconscious thoughts. In psychological terms, what Anna does is most similar to


Which personality test relies on the interpretation of inkblots to understand personality?


Anna is a morally rigorous person who demands that her daughter remain a virgin until she is married. Anna cannot remember her own premarital sexual encounters. Which defense mechanism would likely account for this memory lapse?

compensatory proces

The push toward fulfillment of our inborn capacities and potentialities is what Rogers calls the


When a test actually measures what it is supposed to measure, the test has


Consistency of measurement is indicative of the __________ of a test.


Which of the following tests has a respondent construct a story about a picture?

subjective discomfort

Maria is a retired factory worker who lives with anxiety. Due to the fear of having anxiety attacks, she does not leave her house. This makes her feel trapped in her home, which creates distress. Which criterion would be most appropriate in deciding whether Maria's case represents an example of abnormality?


Dave's wife suggests that he talk to a doctor because of his inability to cope with criticism. The doctor suggests that Dave's problem represents the expression of a repressed, unresolved, internal conflict buried in his unconscious mind that has its roots in Dave's childhood. This view is typical of the ________ model of abnormality


Linda is afraid of cats because when she was a little girl a cat scared her by jumping out of her closet and onto her face. As a result of this experience, Linda learned to be afraid of cats. Which model of abnormality offers the best explanation of Linda's fear?

phobic disorder

Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?


Fear of public speaking and stage fright are both examples of ________ phobias

Phobic disorder is linked to specific triggers while generalized anxiety disorder is not linked to a specific

What is the main difference between generalized anxiety disorder and phobic disorder?

a panic attack

Darcy is sitting at her desk in her office one day when, without warning, her heart begins racing rapidly, she has a sensation of being "out of her body," and she experiences dulled vision and hearing, rapid breathing, and sweating. She thinks she is having a heart attack. Nothing she is doing seems to have caused such an episode. Her symptoms MOST resemble

panic disorder with agoraphobia

Rey always has panic attacks when he is in crowds. Lately, they occur so frequently and unexpectedly that he avoids any place or situation where he expects to be among large groups of people. Rey is most likely to be diagnosed with

panic disorder

Leo worries all of the time. He worries about his money, his children, and his dog. His muscles are always tense and sore, he has trouble sleeping, is often irritable, and has difficulty concentrating. Leo's symptoms sound most like

"Hey, pal, you are really overgeneralizing. Just because Gina said no doesn't mean that all girls will!"

While talking with his best friend Johnny, Maurice, who is clearly down and out, says "Dude, I just have no luck with girls at all. I asked Gina out last night and she turned me down flat. Nobody will EVER want to go out with me. Why am I such a loser?" Because Johnny has recently taken an abnormal psychology class, he uses a cognitive perspective to answer Maurice. Which of the following might Johnny say?


In the last six months Shelly has visited her physician ten times to complain of numerous physical symptoms. The physician has been unable to find a physical cause for her symptoms. What category of psychological disorders is the physician likely to suspect Shelly exhibits?


When Bob noticed a pain in his thigh, he was convinced it was a sign of bone cancer. Although X-rays revealed no sign of cancer, Bob sought the opinions of a dozen other physicians who agreed with the original opinion. What psychological disorder might Bob's behavior indicate?

conversion disorder

After witnessing an accident that killed his daughter, George reports he is blind. Although he bumps into objects at home and elsewhere, he shows lack of concern about his blindness. Specialists have found nothing wrong with the structure or function of his eyes and an MRI reveals no evidence of brain damage. After holding a case conference, a team of professionals suggests that George be evaluated for ________.

a dissociative disorder

After being passed up for a promotion and then getting into a heated argument with his son, a man disappears. He shows up two weeks later in another town with no memory of who he is or how he got there. He appears to be suffering from


A patient in a psychiatric hospital exhibits disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations. This person is probably suffering from

delusions of grandeur

Shreen is diagnosed with schizophrenia. She believes that she is a powerful person who can save the world. Shreen is experiencing

flat affect

Which of the following is a condition in which a person shows little or no emotion?

catatonic schizophrenia

While doing volunteer work at a mental hospital, Mary is put on a ward for adults with severe mental disorders. One patient remains in the same position for hours at a time and never talks. The doctors tell Mary this patient suffers from


A hospital patient was diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia because she was having both delusions and hallucinations. What type of symptoms are these?

Jared, who enjoys stealing cars and going for joy rides around his neighborhood.

Which of the following people would be most likely to receive a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder?


Marty is moody, manipulative, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others. He wants to have close relationships but is unable to do so because he is untrusting of others. Marty is suffering from ________ personality disorde

seasonal affective disorder

he treatment recommended for a patient at the mental health clinic is phototherapy. What is the likely diagnosi


It seems to Joanna that every time her son Daniel eats foods containing chemical dyes or additives, he gets into trouble or acts irrationally. When Joanna mentions this to her pediatrician, the doctor tells Joanna that Daniel's behavior fits the __________ model of abnormality.


The famous story of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is an example of which disorder?

bipolar disorder

Last month Pam was giddy, impulsive, and talkative; this month she is sad, silent, and almost motionless. What is the most likely diagnosis in this case?

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

While Sid is sitting at his desk at work an image of harming his young son pops into his mind. Each time this occurs, he touches all four corners of his desk in a particular order. Sid porbably suffers from


John's behavior appears normal, then he becomes depressed and hyperactivity follows. He would likely be diagnosed as having which disorder?

panic disorder.

June often experiences episodes during which her heart rate accelerates by more than 50 beats per minute despite encountering no emergency. June suffers from:


Martha vacuums the carpet in her living room 15 times a day. It is very likely that she is suffering from which of the following disorders?


Destruction of one's home or community is MOST likely to result in which of the following?


A young boy is attacked by a large dog. He is now terribly afraid of all large dogs. His phobia of dogs is BEST explained by __________ theory

panic attack

Darcy is sitting at her desk in her office one day when she is, without warning, overcome by feelings of intense fear, losing control of herself. Her terror is so great that all she can do is sit at her desk shaking and crying. Nothing she was doing at the time would seem to have caused such an episode. Her symptoms most resemble

a hallucination.

Nancy smells smoke when there is no fire. This is an example of:


Tom's speech makes no sense. He acts childlike and giggles for no apparent reason. Tom would likely be diagnosed as which type of schizophrenia?


A client lies on a couch with the therapist sitting out of sight behind her. The therapist gets to know the client's problems through free association and positive and negative transference. This is an example of ________ therapy.

manifest content

According to Freud, the ________ of the dream refers to the client's memory of the things, people, and events in the dream.

latent content

In interpreting a dream, a psychoanalyst would attempt to discover the dream's


Joe has been undergoing psychoanalysis for several months. Over the past few weeks, he has become unwilling to talk about his relationship with his father and becomes uncomfortable when thoughts of him enter his mind during therapy. What process would the therapist say is occurring?

negative transference

Mario has always had trouble dealing with his parents as authority figures. During psychoanalysis, he reacts to the analyst in a negative manner whenever the therapist says something that reminds him of his parents' control over him. What process would Freud say is occurring?

mismatch between an individual's ideal self and real self

What did Carl Rogers view as a cause of most personal problems and unhappiness?


Carl Rogers's person-centered approach is considered ________ because the client actually does all the real work, with the therapist merely acting as a sounding board.

unconditional positive regard

The therapist's feeling of respect and affection for the client that exists without any strings attached, no matter what the client may say or do, is called

"Say the first thing that comes to your mind; don't censor anything because I want to know what is truly
on your mind."

Imagine if Sigmund Freud were to go to Carl Rogers for therapy. Freud's major complaint is depression due to distress over the lack of positive response to his theories. What is Rogers most likely to say during their session?

A fear of heights restricts Alice's enrollment to classes that meet on the first floor.

For which of these problems would systematic desensitization most likely be used?


Iram is afraid of snakes. In an effort to help him overcome his fear, his therapist has him enter a room where there are dozens of snakes and has him hold them. Iram is not permitted to leave the room until the therapy session is completed. Iram's therapist is using

participant modeling

Juan is so afraid of germs that he wears gloves when opening doors. He is encouraged by his therapist to imitate a person in a video who demonstrates opening a door, step-by-step, without wearing gloves. Which technique is his therapist using?

token economy

At Skinner Elementary School, teachers pass out "skinner bucks" to students who turn in papers on time, obey the teacher, and finish their homework. The paper "bucks" can be traded in at the end of the week for special treats or game-playing time on the classroom computer. This system most resembles a ________.

a contingency contract

Eileen goes to a therapist for help in losing weight. She and her therapist develop a written agreement spelling out weekly step-by-step methods for Eileen to use in order to reach her weight goal. The plan specifies rewards for reaching weekly goals and penalties for not achieving them. Eileen's therapist is using which of the following methods?

ignore the tantrums and pay attention to her son only when he is calm

A parent wishes to stop her young son from throwing temper tantrums. You suggest she use extinction and advise her to

our irrational beliefs

According to Albert Ellis, we become unhappy and depressed about events because of

"You are upset about the reaction that your work has been receiving."

Sigmund Freud arrives for a therapy session with Albert Ellis. Freud's main complaint is depression; it seems that Freud's writings have not received the kind of response he had hoped for and expected. What is Ellis most likely to say during the therapy session?


A therapist challenges what she sees as her client's irrational and self-defeating beliefs. She uses persuasion, confrontation, arguments, and even homework assignments to challenge those beliefs. She is probably a ________ therapist.


are specifically trained to use biomedical therapies.

hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior

Antipsychotic drugs treat symptoms such as


Bob has been under a physician's care for bipolar disorder. Bob's doctor is most likely to prescribe which of the following to treat Bob's disorder?

severe depression

ECT (Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy) is used to treat

surgery that is performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders

Which of the following is the appropriate definition of psychosurgery?


What type of mental health professional must possess a doctorate in medicine?

electric shock

Which of the following is NOT used in biomedical therapy?


Which of the following approaches is based on the premise that people naturally strive to reach their potential and lead a fulfilling life?


Rational Emotive Therapy classifies as a/an __________ approach.


Martha and Stan are newlyweds. They see a therapist because Martha is afraid of sexual intercourse. The therapist asks Martha exactly which acts make her anxious, constructs a hierarchy of those threatening acts, teaches her to relax, and asks her to imagine each threatening scene in the hierarchy and use the relaxation technique to reduce her anxiety as she imagines each scene from the bottom to the top of her hierarchy. The therapist is using

aversive conditioning

Jerry is 22 years old and still gets too many cavities from eating too many sweets. Jerry's dentist trains him to think of the pain of having his teeth drilled each time he reaches for a piece of candy. The dentist is using __________ to cure Jerry's excess eating of sweets.


A technique which assumes it is impossible to be relaxed and anxious at the same time is


Which therapy does NOT assume that many psychological problems are the result of internal thoughts and feelings?

aversive conditioning

In which of the following therapies might a therapist use real physical pain to change behavior?


Kaleem wants to see a therapist because he feels he has negative thoughts and would like to change his way of thinking. Because he is on a limited budget, he would like to choose a type of therapy that is relatively short term and inexpensive. Which of the following therapies would best meet Kaleem's needs?

aversive conditioning

Paula's mother painted Paula's nails with an unpleasant-tasting salve to stop her nail biting. This illustrates

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