Ch. 7 Learning

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Terms in this set (...)

Classical Conditioning
When a stimulus, after many trials, gains the ability to cause a response that it could not originally cause
Founder of classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
Famous experiment that includes classical conditoning
Pavlov's Dogs
Pavlov's experiment
-unconditioned stimulus (meat) caused unconditioned response (salivation) in dogs

-Pavlov repeatedly rang a bell (neutral stimulus) before placing meat in the dogs' mouth

- initially, the dogs didn't react much when they only heard the bell w/o receiving meat

-After repeating procedure several times, dogs began to salivate when they heard the bell (even if he did not deliver meat)

-turned the bell (neutral) into a conditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Stimulus that causes an automatic, unlearned response
Example of UCS
Meat
Unconditioned response (UCR)
Unlearned, natural reaction to unconditioned stimulus
Example of UCR
salivating (mouth watering)
Neutral stimulus (NS)
- Stimulus that doesn't cause any reaction

- Will become a conditioned stimulus
Example of NS
Bell at first
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
- Stimuli that now gained the ability to cause response

- After being conditioned in many trials
Example of CS
Bell AFTER conditioning
Conditioned response (CR)
Behavior that occurs as a reaction to conditioned stimulus
Example of CR
Salivating
Acquisition
Initially learning something
Extinction
- Gradual weakening/disappearance of conditioned response

-Sometimes response never goes away
Example of Extinction
Fears
Spontaneous Recovery
Reappearance of response after thought to be extinct
Generalization
Respond similar to new stimuli that are similar to original stimuli
Example of Generalization
Bitten by bull dog causes fear of all dogs
Discrimination
When someone does not generalize response to like stimuli
Example of Discrimination
Fearing only the bull dog that bit you
Watson's Little Albert Experiment
- The Little Albert experiment presents and example of how classical conditioning can be used to condition an emotional response.

- Neutral Stimulus: The white rat

- Unconditioned Stimulus: The loud noise

- Unconditioned Response: Fear

- Conditioned Stimulus: The white rat

- Conditioned Response: Fear
In addition to demonstrating that emotional responses could be conditioned in humans, Watson and Rayner also observed that stimulus generalization had occurred.

- After conditioning, Albert feared not just the white rat, but a wide variety of similar white objects as well. His fear included other furry objects including Raynor's fur coat and Watson wearing a Santa Claus beard.
Skinner's Experiment
Operant chamber has a bar or key that an animal presses or pecks to release a reward of food or water, and a device that records the responses.
Operant Conditioning
- Learning that occurs when consequences (rewards/punishments) shape responses

- Based on reinforcement: response is strengthened because it leads to rewarding consequences

- Responses created through shaping: giving reinforcement when getting closer and closer to a desired response
Example of Operant Conditioning
Rat gets closer to lever, more food is released in the skinner box
Shaping
Reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Continuous Reinforcement
Continuous reinforcement: every response is rewarded
Example of Continuous Reinforcement
Dog gets hit EVERY time he barks
Intermittent Reinforcement
- Response is rewarded only some of the time

- Leads to longer retention
Example of Intermittent Reinforcement
Dog gets hit every FEW times he barks
Schedules of Reinforcement
Different patterns of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behavior
Fixed-ratio
Reinforcement given after a FIXED NUMBER of non-reinforced responses
Example of Fixed-ratio
Ice cream place has loyalty cards- buy 5, get 6th free
Variable-ratio
Reinforcement given after a VARIED NUMBER of non-reinforced responses
Example of Variable-ratio
Scrolling through Twitter to find an interesting tweet
Fixed-interval
Reinforcement given for first response after a FIXED TIME has passed
Example of Fixed-interval
- Rat gets food after 30 seconds

- Checking laundry to see if it is done after certain time
Variable-interval
Reinforcement given for first response after VARIED TIME has passed
Example of Variable-interval
Checking Instagram to see hpw many likes your recent post got
Reinforcement
Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Punishment
An event that tends decrease the behavior it follows
Positive reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforces
Example of Positive reinforcement
Teacher praises a student for raising hand
Negative reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by stopping negative stimuli
Example of Negative reinforcement
Teachers takes away homework if good in class
Positive punishment
Administer something that's undesired
Example of Positive punishment
Teachers gives bad class more homework
Negative punishment
End something that's desired
Example of Negative punishment
Teacher takes away student's cell phone if they use it in class
Observational Learning
- When responses are influenced by watching others

- Extends operant and classical conditioning - don't need to directly experience it

- Need to pay attention to model's behavior, must retain it, must reproduce it, and must be motivated
Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment
In this experiment children watched a model attack a doll and then the children were put in a room with toys including the same doll and children it was found that the kids who watched the model were much more likely to imitate the actions but with more violance.
Modeling
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior