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Female Reproductive Histology
Terms in this set (36)
Female reproductive system consists of:
internal reproductive organs: paired ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina
external: clitoris, labia majora, labia minora, mammary glands: usually studied with the reproductive system since their development is associated with the developmental state of the reproductive system
Reproductive system remains incompletely developed until __ __ released by the __ __ initiate __
gonadotropic hormones, anterior pituitary, puberty
first menstrual flow begins at age 13 and is repeated on a 28 day cycle. Cycles become infrequent between 45 and 55, and they eventually cease. Change of reproductive function induced changes in hormonal and neurological signals-- menopuase
paired ovaries located in the pelvis and are almond shaped
fold of peritoneum extending from the broad ligament of the uterus that hold ovaries in place. Blood vessls that supply ovaries are carried in the mesovarium to the hilum of each ovary
covers the ovary and is layer of low simple cuboidal cells arising from peritoneum.
dense irregular collagenous CT layer located deep to the germinal epithelium
immediately interior to the tunica albuginea
ovarian follicles at various stages of development are suspended in CT stroma.
stromal cells- fibroblasts of the cortex are responsible for synthesizing cortex CT stroma
smaller central region of the ovary, consisting of vascularized loose CT.
Oogonia and Primary Oocytes
primordial germ cells that develop after first month of gestation. These cells undergo mitotic divisioins and migrate to developing ovary to continue to divide until 6th mo.
each ovary contains 3 million oogonia but most will undergo atresia
results from final mitotic division of the surviving oogonia
primary oocytes begin meiosis while still in fetus, but are arrested in prophase of the first meiotic division. Remain arrested until ovulation.
A young woman has about 400,000 follicles when she begins to ovulate at puberty. Usually one oocyte is ovulated every 28 days for 30 to 40 years, thus less than 500 oocytes are ovulated over a lifetime.
Primary oocytes are contained within follicles until the late Graafian follicle stage.
most primitive follicles, each consisting of a primary oocyte surrounded by a single layer of squamous follicular cells. These cells are attached to one anothe rby desmosome and have a basal lamina separating the follicle from surrounding stromal CT
develop fromt he primordial follicles. Initially the follicular cells surrounding the primary oocyte develop into a single layer of cuboidal cells. Characteristic distinguishes a primordial follicle:
unilaminar primary follicle- primary follicle with 1 layer of cuboidal
multilaminar primary follicle- primary follicle w/ 2 or more layers of granulosa cells
follicular cells proliferate and form multiple layers around the primary oocyte/ These cells are joined by desmosomes and gap junctions. Lack tight juctions, nutrients move between blood and follicular fluid. Basal lamina exists
distinct acidophilic refractile layer that develops between oocyte and follicular cells. Composed of glycoproteins secreted by both the follicular cells and oocyte
Microvilli on the __ and __ of the follicular cell extend into the zona pellucida and form gap junctions..facilitating ___ between cells.
oocyte, filopodia, communication
organized layer of stromal CT outside of the basal lamina of the primary follcile
Organizes into two distinct layers:
1) Theca interna: development of the primary follicle proceeds, the TI forms the CT immediately around the basal lamina. Highly vascularized layer
2) Theca externa: CT layer surrounding the theca interna
Secondary (antral) follicles
primary follicle continues to develop and move deeper into the stroma. Further proliferation of the granulosa cells requires FSH secreted by anterior pituitary. Fluid filled cavities appear between proliferating granulosa cells. FOllicle is considered a secondary follicle
fluid filling the spaces between granulosa cells of the secondary follicles. Liquor folliculi forms from blood plasma and contains hormones and other secretiosn from granulosa cells
large fluid filled space when smaller cavities of a secondary follicle unite
group of granulosa cells associated wtih oocyte. Cumulus oophorus projects into the antrum and is the pedestal for oocyte
outside the zona pellucida and is the first single layer of granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte
develops from cells that maintain gap juctions. remains w/ oocyote at ovulation unlike other granulosa cells.
granulosa cell proliferation and liquor folliculi accumulation continues until the mature graafian follicle is formed
primary oocyte and associated corona radiata detach from cumulus oophorus and floats freely in liquor folliculi...theca interna is becoming more pronounced
formation of the secondary oocyte in the graafian follicle
seconary oocyte (and first polary body) form...
when the primary oocyte in the graafian follicle completes the first meiotic divison
enters the second meiotic division and is arrested in metaphase:
secondary oocyte w/ corona radiata is ovulated
corpus luteum forms the remnants of the graafian follcile
release of the oocyte from teh ovary occurring at the 14th day of the 28 day cycle
result of hormonal factors:
increased volume and pressure from liquor folliculi
enzymatic breakdown of the follicular wal
contraction of smooth muscle in theca externa
sigma- area on ovary surface that becomes ischemic due to the pressure of the graafian follcile against the ovarian wall. Tissue becomes necrotic and ruptures. oocyte is released through this opening and is transported into the oviduct
get your terminology down:
Multilaminar PF Secondary fol
secondary foli tertiary foli
formed when remnants of the collapsed graafian follicle following ovulation. Blood clot seals the rupture sit and the modified granulosa and theca interna cells begin secretion of various hormones
granulosa lutein cells
steriod-synthesizing cells derived from granulosa cells and comprising 80% of the cells in the corpus luteum
have an appearance typical of steroid producing cells when viewed in the electron microscope, w/ many mitochondria, well developed SER, RER, and golgi netowrks and lipid droplets
granulosa lutein cells synthesize what hormones?
estrogen derived from androgens produced by theca luteinc ells
theca lutein cells
small dark staining cells from the theca interna
synthesize: progestrone, androgens
t/f: luteal cells are generated if fertilization does not occur?
dense CT scar formed at the site of an involuted corpus luteum
most influential hormone in first 8-10 days of the menstrual cycle, stimulating development of 10-20 primary follicles.
released from pituitary pars distalis an dbinds to receotpros of follicular cell surface
cells enlarge and proliferate forming the layers of granulosa cells in teh multilaminar primary follicle. Hormone productioni by granulosa cells is also induced particularly production of estrogens
synthesis and relase by the pars distalis are stimulated by increased estrogen levels, about about day 14, sharp increse in LH relase results from high circulating levels of estrogens
binds to receptors on cells of the theca interna, stimulating production of androgens. Converted to estrogens by granulosa cells
resulting increase in blood estrogen levels suppresses FSH release from the pars distalis
lh induces primary oocyte to complete meiosis 1 and proceed to metaphase of meiosis ii
also induces ovulation, afterwards, corpus luteum is formed and mainted due to binding of LH to receptors on the theca interna cells and granulosa cells
syntehsized by both theca lutein and granulosa lutein cells. Progesterone acts on the pars distalis and hypothalamus to inhibit Lh release
if fertilzation has not occurred, LH levels drop resulting in CL degeneration. Secretory acvtity of the corpus luteum lasts 14 days in absense of fertilization
Oviducts (Fallopian Tubes)
Each oviduct is divided into 4 anatomical regions
infundibulum- funnel shaped, open eded region of the oviduct adjacent to the ovary..ovulated secondary oocyte is released near the fimbriae of the infundibulum
fimbriae - fingerlike infundibular extensions that draw the oocyte into the oviduct via an active "beating" movement
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