20 terms

The Cell Cycle and Mitosis 2019 (Honors)

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cell division
Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
Cell Cycle
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
Chromosomes
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Centromeres
the point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.
"Sister" chromatids
Identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of these are created during the S sub-phase of interphase.
Interphase
Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
G1 phase
The first gap phase, of the cell cycle, when the cell grows, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.
S phase
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
G2 phase
The second gap of the cell cycle, when the cell prepares for cell division, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.
Mitosis
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
Prophase
Chromosomes become visible, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms
Metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
Telophase
phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin and two new nuclei begin to form around the separated chromosomes
Cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
Centrioles
a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
spindle
fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes during mitosis
Cyclins
proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
Cancer
any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division
contact inhibition/density dependent inhibition
normal cells stop dividing and enter G-zero when they become too crowded