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The Age of Exploration
Terms in this set (55)
1) there was no modern technology
2) most people farmed only enough to feed their families
3) people did not move around
What was life like in the pre-exploration world?
technology was purposeful in that it enabled people to explore, it didn't just make life easier for people
Describe the nature of technology leading to the Age of Exploration.
1) pirates at sea might attack you
2) storms and sea monsters might shipwreck you
3) you might get a disease
4) whether you make it to your destination or not, you probably won't be coming back home
What are some reasons why a person would NOT want to explore the world?
GLORY - to be the first person to reach a destination, to be remembered forever, to be famous
Describe the first main reason why people did explore.
GOLD - to get rich, to find treasure or new resources, to change your lot in life
Describe the second main reason why people did explore.
GOD - to spread the news about Jesus Christ to native groups who have never heard of him
Describe the third main reason why people did explore.
Spain, Portugal, France, England, and the Dutch Republic
Who were the main competitors in the Age of Exploration?
Italy had a monopoly on trade between Europe and Asia, so other European countries wanted to find another way to trade with Asia that could compete with Italy
Why were tensions high between European superpowers at this time?
when one person or company (or in this case, one country) has total control over a particular product
1) Prince Henry and his father find riches in an African city
2) Prince Henry, thinking there are more riches to be found, opens schools for training in exploration
3) Portugal begins doing expeditions along the Western African Coast
How did Portugal become the leader in exploration?
the Portuguese leader who made them a leader in exploration
the explorer who first rounded the southern tip of Africa
Vasco da Gama
the explorer who makes it all the way to modern-day India
they claimed port cities one after another like dominoes, giving them control over trade there
After Dias and da Gama, how did Portugal establish dominance in Asia?
a city on a coast where ships enter and leave for trading purposes
What was the main good that Portugal traded to and from Asia?
Italian explorer who sailed for Spain and set out to discover a quicker path to Asia
the purpose of his first trip was to explore, the purpose of his second trip was to conquer
How did the purpose shift between Columbus's first and second voyages to the New World?
a group of people owned by a foreign country
a Spanish "conqueror" in the New World
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztec Empire in modern-day Mexico
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire along the west coast of modern-day South America
1) they had advanced weaponry (guns and cannons)
2) some of the natives joined the Spanish
3) disease brought by the Europeans
How did the Spanish manage to conquer the New World?
European men and native women would produce mixed offspring, lessening the loyalty of future generations
Describe the pattern of conquest that Mr. Carter described as "infesting the culture."
Spanish men who had come to the New World
a person of mixed Spanish and native descent
a Spanish conquistador would be given land in the New World and enslave the natives there
Describe the encomienda system.
1) some religious workers because they thought it violated God's moral law
2) some native groups who hated the mistreatment of their people
Who stood in opposition to the brutality of the encomiendas and why did they oppose it?
Portugal and Spain became rivals because Portugal thought that Columbus had sailed into the East Indies and that Spain was claiming their territory
My project time will vary from month to month, but common activities are going to the park when it's nice out, watching movies, and playing games. I am not getting paid, but hoping to gain good skills with kids and help me stay responsible.
Line of Demarcation
boundary line that separated Portugal and Spain's territory in the New World
1) they gain independence from Spain
2) they invest heavily in their fleet
3) they steal Portugal's control over the East Indies due to their better and faster ships
Describe the Dutch Republic's rise to power.
the first voyager to make it around the world
1) the world is round
2) you can get to the East Indies going west
What two things did Magellan's voyage prove?
a faster way to the East Indies by going through modern-day North America
What did the superpowers want to find after Magellan's voyage happened?
after trying and failing to find a passageway to the East Indies, they settle down in the sparsely populated New World and begin a successful trading relationship with the natives
How did the French stake their claim in modern-day North America?
it takes them a while to get settled in because they were too concerned with making a profit (like the French), but eventually their population grows exponentially
Explain how the English set themselves up in modern-day North America.
- the English mainly wanted to conquer and expand territory
- the French mainly wanted economic success and good trade relationships
Explain the different purposes that the English and French had in the New World.
1) there was a need for a large workforce
2) the natives had been wiped out by disease
Why was there a demand for slaves from Africa?
1) Africans were already immune to many European diseases
2) Africans were skilled and experienced farmers
3) Africans were less likely to escape because they did not know the land
4) Africans who escaped would be easier to find due to their dark skin
Why, from the Europeans' perspective, was Africa the most advantageous place to get slaves?
1) slavery was already present in African society
2) because Europeans offered money, many Africans were willing to sell slaves for a profit
How were Europeans able to get African slaves so easily?
The Middle Passage
the journey slaves would take across the Atlantic Ocean; this was one segment of Triangular Trade
like cargo, packed into tight areas and violently abused to the point of death, suicide, or rebellion
How were slaves treated on the Middle Passage?
the "triangle" trade relationship between Europe, Africa, and the New World, in which guns go from Europe to Africa, slaves go from Africa to the New World, and goods and products go from the New World to Europe
What was Triangular Trade?
POSITIVE = it was economically successful and it eventually allowed African culture to become part of American culture
NEGATIVE = African families were broken apart and guns were devastatingly introduced into African society
What were the positive and negative consequences of the Atlantic Slave Trade?
time period in which many people move from intellectual "darkness" to intellectual "light"
- the foundation of the Enlightenment
- the world itself didn't change, but the way we look at it did
Sir Isaac Newton
discovered the law of gravity, which was the breakthrough discovery concerning the earth, sun, and many other aspects of our world
balance of powers, which is the idea that power should not lie in the hands of just one person or group
What concept was applied to government during the Enlightenment?
- he's the creator of the world, but after creating it left it to run on its own; this means that God is not involved in your daily life
- this belief is called deism
According to Enlightenment thinkers, what is God's role in the world?
every human being is born as a "blank slate," meaning they have no natural inclinations and do bad or good based on their environment
According to Enlightenment thinkers, what is the nature of human beings?
ideas spread from the "top" (rich and educated) to the "bottom" (common people)
Explain the "top to bottom" concept regarding how the Enlightenment spread.
1) many still couldn't read
2) they didn't have access to Enlightenment information
3) they wouldn't have been able to understand Enlightenment writers
4) they didn't have anyone to discuss Enlightenment ideas with
What limited common people during the Enlightenment?
1) the printing press allows reading to become more common
2) salons gave people a place to discuss Enlightenment ideas
What changed that allowed Enlightenment ideas to spread to common people more easily?
The American and French Revolutions
During what two historical events were Enlightenment ideas put into action?
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