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Terms in this set (81)
Specific Disciplinary Outcomes
mastery of content, conceptual or theoretical applications, disciplinary research skills
general intellectual/ cognitive skill outcomes
critical thinking, synthesis of ideas, intellectual complexity
personal and social development outcomes
self-efficacy, collaboration skills, identity formation, values clarification
diversity/ multicultural outcomes
reduction of stereotypes, enhanced perspective taking abilities
civic engagement outcomes
commitment to community well-being, enhanced understanding of "the common good," skills in deliberative dialogue
professional/ career development
work habits, professional demeanor, networking skills
the scientific study of social behavior and human groups
the social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural values within a formally organized structure
learning that occurs in a spontaneous, unplanned way
learning that takes place within an academic setting such as a school, which has a planned instructional process and teachers who convey specific knowledge, skills, and thinking processes to students
manifest functions of education
open, stated, and intended goals or consequences of activities
learning the appropriate attitudes and behaviors for the student role and specific academic subjects.
transmission of culture
Schools transmit cultural norms and values to each new generation and play an active part in the process of assimilation, whereby recent immigrants learn dominant cultural values, attitudes, and behaviors so that they can be productive members of society.
Schools are responsible for teaching values such as discipline, respect, obedience, conformity, punctuality, and perseverance.
Schools are responsible for identifying the most-qualified people to fill the positions available in society.
5. Change and innovation
Schools are a source of change and innovation. As student populations change over time, new programs are introduced to meet societal needs: sex education, drug education, multicultural studies, new knowledge, innovative technologies, new techniques
is the fairly stable patterns of thought, feelings, and action that are typical of an individual.
personality includes 3 components
The most important socialization occurs during infancy and childhood, when the foundations of later personality are laid.
latent functions of education
hidden, unstated, and sometimes unintended consequences of activities within an organization
Matchmaking and production of social networks.
schools bring together people of similar ages, social class, and race/ethnicity, young people often meet future marriage partners and develop social networks that may last for many years.
1. Restricting some activities
require children to attend school until they reach a specified age (usually age 16) or complete a minimum level of formal education (generally the eighth grade).
-keep students off the streets and out of the full-time job market for a number of years, thus helping keep unemployment within reasonable bounds.
Creation of a generation gap
When education conflicts with parental attitudes and beliefs, a generation gap is created if students embrace the newly acquired perspective.
education is crucial for promoting social solidarity and stability in society
that moral education is very important because it conveys moral values - the foundation of a cohesive social order. He believed that schools are responsible for teaching a commitment to the common morality.
the process by which children and recent immigrants become acquainted with the dominant cultural beliefs, values, norms, and accumulated knowledge of a society. This occurs through informal and formal education.
Informal Education in Preliterate Societies
-Preliterate societies existed before the invention of reading and writing.
-These societies have no written language and are characterized by very basic technology and a simple division of labor.
often occurs through storytelling or ritual ceremonies that convey cultural messages and provide behavioral norms.
formal ed in preindustrial societies
have a written language. Few people know how to read and write, and formal education is often reserved for the privileged.
Education becomes more formalized in preindustrial and industrial societies.
formal ed in industrial
occurred in ancient Greece and Rome, where philosophers taught elite males the skills required to become thinkers and orators.
-In general, parents taught their children at home, though wealthy families might hire expensive tutors or send their sons to exclusive schools.
the first colleges and universities were developed under the auspices of the Catholic church.
the focus of education shifted to the importance of developing well-rounded and liberally educated people.
with the rapid growth of industrial capitalism and factories, it became necessary for workers to have basic skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic.
the free public school movement was started in 1848 by Horace Mann, who stated that education should be the "great equalizer."
a cluster of social structures that fulfills one or more of the fundamental needs of a society
a stable cluster of values, norms, statuses, roles, and groups that develops around a basic social need
characteristics of institutions
1. Tend to be resistant to change
2. Tend to be interdependent
3. Tend to change together
4. Tend to be the site of major social
regulate sexual behavior; provide care for children; socialization
transmit cultural knowledge to the young; creation of knowledge
take care of the sick
produce and distribute goods and services
distribute power; maintain order
investigate social and natural world
aggress or defend against enemies of the state
maintains social control
provide for recreation and exercise
social control; mobilization of society's resources
share and reaffirm community values and solidarity; promotion of social unity and a sense of meaning
is an organization model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personnel matters.
is the process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality and spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures.
division of labor
characterized by specialization, and each member has a specific status with certain assigned tasks to fulfill.
This division of labor requires the employment of specialized experts who are responsible for the effective performance of their duties.
Hierarchy of Authority
chain of command. It includes each lower office being under the control and supervision of a higher one. Authority that is distributed hierarchically takes the form of a pyramid.
rules and regulations
usually standardized and provided to members in written form. Rules and regulations establish authority within an organization.
A detached approach should prevail toward clients so that personal feelings do not interfere with organizational decisions.
hire based on specific qualification. Favoritism, family connections, and other subjective factors not relevant to organizational efficiency are not acceptable criteria for employment.
Movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society's stratification system to another
implies that the position of each individual is influenced by his or her achieved status
allows little or no possibility of individual social mobility
each occupation has the same prestige ranking
the movement of an individual from one social position to another of a different rank. This involves moving upward or downward
involves changes in the social position of children relative to their parents. Because education contributes significantly to upward mobility, any barrier to the pursuit of advanced degrees can definitely limit intergenerational mobility.
asserts that students from diverse class backgrounds come to school with differing amount of cultural capital.
involves changes in social position within a person adult life. Ex. A woman begins work as a teacher's aide and eventually becomes superintendent of the school district experiences upward intragenerational mobility.
describes a condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power.
a structured ranking of entire groups of people who perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society
are social rankings based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence mobility
- Income refers to salaries and wages
- Wealth is an inclusive term encompassing all of a person's material assets, including land and other types of property.
is a social position attained by a person largely through his or her own effort
is a social position "assigned" to a person without regard for the person's unique characteristics or talents
refers to people who have a similar level of wealth and income
refers to people who have the same prestige or lifestyle, independent of their class positions
the respect and admiration with which an occupation is regarded by society
is the ability to exercise one's will over others
which sifts individuals and places them within the society
The purpose of this control is to distribute the individuals so that each is placed according to his/her talents and able to perform successfully his/her social function.
mechanism which controls the process of vertical movement
1. Testing individuals
2. Selection of individuals for a definite social position
3. Distribution of the members of society among different social strata
fourth dimension of status attainment
Education has been proposed as a fourth status dimension
are inequalities among units
they are usually institutionalized within society
three dimensions for status systems
Myth #1: We All Have Equal Opportunity
America has, for a long time, been hailed as a land of dreams. The notion that someone could be born poor and die rich, or immigrate here and become a leader in their industry, is still widespread and, for the most part, subconsciously accepted by people who live here.
Myth #2: Poor People Just Aren't Trying Hard Enough
People are very interested in the lives of poor people.
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