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APHG - Unit 7 Terms and Concepts
Terms in this set (58)
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
intentional modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain
A grass yielding grain for food.
Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing.
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field.
changes to the Earth's climate zones that have come about as a result of human actions on the earth. Agriculture contributes a great deal to the gasses that cause climate change.
agriculture that is intended for trade of profit
a large feedlot to fatten animals before slaughter
any plant cultivated by people
the system of annually changing the crops planted on a specific field, in order to allow the soil to regenerate and replenish its nutrients
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the field.
the cultivation of a plant for food or other benefits
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Landlords wall/fence in their fields, kick peasants off in favor of more efficient -- and profitable -- methods agriculture
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease in a region
farm that produces animals for consumption, using a factory model agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
areas characterized by a lack of access to fresh and healthy foods
Genetically Modified Organism, a plant or animal that has been scientifically modified at the genetic level. In agriculture this is usually to improve its resistance to disease, pests, and drought, or enhance certain aesthetic features.
growing oats, wheat, rye, corn, soybeans, or barley. Grain is used in foods, industrial and consumer products, and as feed for animals
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizer
the origin of a phenomenon
the outer covering of a seed
Hunting and gathering (foraging)
the practice of gathering plants, roots, and seeds, and hunting animals in order to obtain food. Hunter-gatherers were nomadic and lived in small communities that were relatively egalitarian.
Intensive subsistence agriculure
a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
extensive use of land for the grazing of animals
Mechanized Dairy Farming
the production of milk using machinery to do much of the milking, moving, and processing
the cultivation of diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives, nuts, fruits, and vegetables in regions with a rainy and warm winter and hot/dry summer
refers to the area served by dairy farms. Since milk spoils quickly, a ring of production must surround a major city; distance extended today by refrigerated trucks
Mixed crop and livestock farming
most of the crops are fed to animals rather than consumed directly by humans. In turn, the livestock supply manure to improve soil fertility to grow more crops
when human beings first domesticated animals and plants and became sedentary farmers
a natural resource for which there is a limited supply that cannot regenerate
Foods that are grown without the use of pesticides and other chemicals
Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
an outbreak of an infectious disease that covers multiple regions and large portions of the population
a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.
a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
Prime agricultural land
the most productive farmland
a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
a machine that cuts cereal grain standing in the field
a system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote soil conservation
in, relating to, or characteristic of the countryside rather than the town/city
a field flooded for growing rice
Second Agricultural Revolution
improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
breeding animals to enhance certain characteristics
Shifting cultivation aka slash-and-burn agriculture
a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production on the location, such as land, labor, and capital.
location factors related to transportation of materials into and from a nearby locaiton
wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restored crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides.
a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
to beat out grain from stalks by trampling it
the seasonal migration between mountains and lowland pastures
Truck farming aka horticulture
the production of perishable fruits and vegetables, as well as flowers
rice planted on dryland in a nursery and then moved to deliberately flooded fields to promote growth
to remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind
wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer
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