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PSB 2000 Exam 3 (FSU O'Neal-Moffitt)
Terms in this set (80)
Where do sensation and perception occur?
Sensation - sensory organ
Perception - the brain
What is the law of specific nerve energies?
Each sensory receptor is designed to respond to a specific band of energy
What is the retinal circuitry?
Receptors -> (Horizontal cell) -> Bipolar cell -> (Amacrine cell) -> Ganglion cell
Acuity - clearest image in fovea
Sensitivity - periphery motion (can't see color)
Different types of ospins
Long wavelength - red (but responds best to yellow)
Medium - green
Short - blue
Trichromatic Theory of color vision
3 cones (red, blue, green)
Medium and Long share a lot
red- long (wavelength)
Cortex compares info from various parts of the retina to determine brightness and color for each area
Blue and yellow are opposite of each other according to our eyes
Suggests we perceive color in terms of paired opposites
Color and contrast constancy (lateral inhibition)
Color is still the same despite the lighting
What causes color vision deficiency?
Gene responsible is on X chromosome
Protanopia/deuteranopia - red-green
Tritanopia - blue
What are brain regions involved in vision and the visual pathways through to the cortex?
Optic chiasm - fibers from nasal decussate
Thalamus -> cortex - perception
Superior colliculus - reflexes and orientation
Supra-chiasmiatic nucleus (SCN) of hypothalamus - circadian clock (sleep-wake cycle)
Correlations between cones/rods and parvo/magnocellular cells
Fovea: cones - parvocellular cells
Periphery: rods - magnocellular
The "where pathway" of vision
Area V1 (primary vis. cortex) -> V2 -> Association cortex -> Posterior parietal cortex
Important for things like maze learning, ability to perceive movement, find objects and move toward them
The "what pathway" of vision
V1 -> V2 -> Association cortex -> Inferior parietal cortex
Important for things like object perception and recognition
Inability to recognize objects (can describe but doesn't know what it is)
Inability to recognize faces (can still recognize person by voice)
Inability to determine direction, speed, and whether objects are moving
When a point in visual field hit 2 different spots in the retina but hook up together in lateral geniculate
Distinguishing between what the left and right eye see
Steroscopic depth perception (perceiving distance) relies on this
Strabismus vs Astigmatism
Strabismus - crossed (lazy) eye
Astigmatism - blurring of vision for lines in one direction caused by an asymmetric curvature of eye
1.Sound enters earlobe/pinna and travel down auditory canal
2.Sound waves bounce of eardrum, cause it to vibrate
3.Vibrations are transferred to three ossicles and 3 bones go tap-tap-tap...against oval window
4.Oval window moves
5.Fluid moves in cochlea
6.Hair cells detect fluid moving = are activated
7.Ionic changes at inner hair cells, send action potential via vestibularcochlear nerve (CN8) to brain
8.From cochlear nucleus to superior olive to inferior colliculus
9.Auditory info then goes to medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
10.Primary auditory cortex to secondary cortex to association cortex
Amplitude vs Frequency vs Complexity
Amplitude (loudness) - height of sound wave
Frequency (pitch) - speed of sound wave
Complexity (timbre) - how many sound waves come into ear at once
What structures do the outer, middle, and inner ear have?
- pinna - flesh and cartilage attached to head. sound localization
- tympanic membrane (ear drum) - vibrates at same rate when struck by sound waves)
- ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) - amplifies sound
- oval window - membrane that transmits waves through viscous fluid
- cochlea - transduction. contains 3 fluid filled tunnels (scala vestibuli, scala media, scala tympani)
- hair cells - auditory receptors between basilar membrane and tectorial membrane in cochlea
Place Theory vs Frequency Theory
Place theory - each area along basilar membrane has hair cells sensitive to only one specific frequency (explains by high frequency)
Frequency theory - basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony w/ sound and causes auditory nerve axons to produce action potentials at same frequency (explained by low frequency. works to about 400/500 Hz)
What are amusia and "perfect pitch"?
Amusia - impaired detection to frequency changes (tone deafness)
Absolute pitch ("perfect pitch") is the ability to hear a note and identify it
Does damage to A1 necessarily cause deafness unless damage extends to the subcortical areas?
A1 is only needed for advanced processing of sound
How do we sense the amplitude of sound?
Louder the sound, more fibers are activated
More action potentials -> louder
What roles do the Inner Hair Cells (IHC) versus Outer Hair Cells (OHC) play? How many of each do we have (on average)?
- ~3,500 (1 row)
- actual sensory receptors
- 90-95% of auditory nerve fibers come from IHCs
- ~ 20,000 (3 rows)
- sharpen frequency response of IHCs
What are the two kinds of deafness and what is wrong in each?
What is tinnitus?
1. Conductive (middle-ear) deafness
- middle ear can not transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea
2. Nerve (inner-ear) deafness
- damage to cochlea, hair cells, or auditory nerve
Tinnitus - frequent/constant ringing in ears
What cues do we use for sound localization?
- How lound is it at left vs. right ear (Internal evel Difference (ILD)
- When did it arrive at left vs. right (Internal Time Delay (ITD)
how do we detect the direction of tilt and the amount of acceleration of the head?
Head moves -> Jelly pushes of hair cells -> action potentials through cranial nerve 8 to brainstem and cerebellum
What is motion sickness caused by?
Info from inner ear, eyes, skin, and muscles don't match and your brain gets confused
The Somatosensory system is one of our mechanical senses. What is it detecting?
Sensation of body and its movement
What are three primary kinds of somatosensory receptors?
Pressure, temperature, pain
What ion is used to trigger an action potential? In what organ are they located?
4 different kind of tactile receptors (and their adaptation rate & size of receptor field)
1. SA I (merkel) - texture
2. SA II (ruffini) - sustained pressure
3. FA I (meissner) - low frequency vibration
4. FA II (pacinian) - high frequency vibration
How does touch info and temp/pain info travel?
- goes into dorsal column-medial lemniscal (DC/ML) pathway
- doesn't synapse immediately
- crosses to other side at medulla
*moves quicker than temp/pain
- synapses and crosses immediately
- go up to brain via spinothalamic tract
What neurotransmitter is involved in mild pain? Intense pain?
What neurotransmitter can be used to "gate" or minimize pain?
Mild pain - glutamate released in spinal cord
Intense pain - glutamate & substance P
Can use endorphins (enkephalins and ß-endorphins)
There are both sensory and emotional aspects to pain and each one stimulates a different part of the cortex. What part of the cortex is involved for each?
Conscious perception of pain:
one pathway from spinal cord to cortex
one pathway from cord to hypothalamus, amygdala, and cingulate cortex
What are placebos and nocebos and how do they work?
Placebo - decreases emotional response to the pain and decreases response in cingulate cortex but NOT somatosensory cortex
Nocebo - detrimental effect on health produced by psychological or psychosomatic factors such as negative expectations of treatment or prognosis
How does capsaicin work?
Release substance P faster than cells can resynthesizes it (burning sensation, followed by decreased pain. like an icy-hot patch)
Where do cannabinoids work?
Act in periphery nervous system
Does morphine work for thinner axons (dull pain) or thicker axons (sharp pain)?
Inhibits thinner axons
Labeled-line principle vs Across-fiber pattern principle
- each receptor responds to a limited range of stimuli and sends a direct line to brain (1-to-1 connection)
- tells is its salty, sour, sweet, etc (primary taste)
- each receptor responds to a wider range of stimuli and contributes to perception of each of them (many-to-1 connection)
How many primary tastes do humans have?
Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter, Umami
How do the taste receptors depolarize? (3 different types of mechanisms)
1. Saltiness - inotropic - sodium ions cross membrane to cause action potential
2. Sour - inotropic - close potassium channels when acid binds to receptor
3. Sweet, Bitter, Umami - metabatropic - activate G protein that release a second messenger in cell when a molecule binds to receptor
Why are we so sensitive to bitter tastes?
Bitter receptors are sensitive to a wide range of chemical w/ varying degree of toxicity
What is adaptation with regard to taste receptors?
Reduced perception of a stimuli due to fatigue of receptors
What is flavor and where in the brain is it processed?
Flavor - combination of taste and smell
Taste and smell axons converge in endopiriform cortex
What cranial nerves are involved in taste?
Vagus nerve (CN X)
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Chorda tympani (branch of facial nerve CN VII)
The first brain region to get taste information is...
the nucleus of the tractus solitarus (NTS) in the medulla
The insula is the primary cortex for what?
What is olfaction and where are the olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) located?
Olfaction - sense of smell
**doesnt get filtered by thalamus, goes straight to amygdala and hippocampus
OSN is in the nasal olfactory epithelium
Starting at the metabotropic G-protein receptor in the olfactory epithelium, what structures are involved in the olfactory receptor to brain pathway?
OSN -> CN1 -> olfactory bulb -> olfactory tract -> pyriform cortex
Do humans have a vomeronasal organ? Is there any evidence to suggest that we are sensitive to pheromones?
Yes, but its not as important as it is other mammals
There are no nerves that connect it to the brain, so theres most likely no function for humans
What does anosmia mean?
Inability to smell a single chemical
Sensation vs. Perception
Sensation is arrival of info to brain, perception is interpretation of info in brain
law of specific nerve energies
This law states that impulses mean one thing when they occur in one neuron, and something else when they occur in a different neuron
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
circular band of muscles that controls the size of the pupil therefore controls the light entry
bends light toFocuses light onto retina passing through the eye
-the central focus point in the retina
- most detailed vision happens here
retina (rods and cones)
-tissue with nerve cells and photo receptors
-translates light into action potential
-discriminates wavelengthes (colors)
-works in a wide range of light intensities
-hole in retina where optic nerve exits eye
- no photoreceptors
-sensory info from photoreceptors to brain
- Cranial Nerve (CN) II
clear outer covering
center of the human retina
color vision deficiency
-inability to perceive color differences
-Caused by lack of a type of cone or cone has abnormal properties
-common is difficulty distinguishing red and green (protanopia/ deuteranopia
-Carried on X chromosome
blindness caused by problems within the eye
-cant see anything
blindness caused by damage to primary visual cortex
periodic compressions of air, water, or other media
-contains the cochlea
-hair cells are auditory receptors that lie between the basilar membrane and the tectorial membrane in the cochlea
-contains the tympanic membrane (ear drum)
-Connects to three tiny bones (malleus, incus, and stapes) that transform waves into stronger waves to the oval window
-Transmits waves through the viscous fluid of the inner ear
-the outermost part of the ear, consisting of the pinna and the external auditory canal
-Responsible for Altering the reflection of sound waves into the middle ear from the outer ear, and
Hair cells regarding frequency
sensitive to only one specific frequency of sound wave
apex of basilar membrane
wide and floppy, low frequency
stiff, high frequency
Area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve
Does touch information ascend up the spine on the ipsilateral side or the contralateral side
---ipsilaterally in ventral premotor areas
--- Collaterally in primary somatosensory cortex and supplementary motor area
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