50 terms

Geoscience 40 Mid-Term Review Questions

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Nearly all of Earth's surface water is contained in: a) The oceans b) Rivers, glaciers and ice caps c) Holding tanks at the Pepsi Bottling Company in Marion, Illinois
a. The oceans
The oceans represent far less water than the water (H2O) that is bound to minerals in Earth's interior: a) True b) False
a. True
Water on Earth (and hence ocean water) most likely formed: a) During the first 0.5 x 10^9 (half billion) years of Earth's history b) From emission (degassing) of volatiles from Earth's interior c) From melting of glaciers and polar ice caps d) (a) and (c) e) (a) and (b)
e. a and b
The Scientific method: a) is a belief based approach b) is an empirical approach based on observations and facts c) leads to Laws and Theories that do not change d) can only be used by licensed scientists e) none of the above
b. is an empirical approach based on observations and facts
It is easier to prove a theory or hypothesis than it is to disprove a theory or hypothesis. a) T or b) F
b. false
The "Goldilocks Principle," in part, suggests that Earth has just the right position in the solar system to allow retention of liquid water and habitability for life. a) T or b) F
a. true
The course web site has an article about a violent storm in 1992 that tossed 20 containers of rubber duckies overboard. T/F
a. true
Extreme variation in the ocean's temperature is prevented by water's a) density. b) transparency. c) viscosity. d) heat capacity. e) compressibility.
d. heat capacity
Key physical properties of water include: a) viscosity, which is a measure of the mass per unit volume of water. b) surface tension, which is the property that makes water form into droplets when it's raining. c) heat capacity, which is a measure of the heat required to change the temperature of water. d) none of the above e) b & c.
e. b and c
Latent heat is the a) energy required to change ice to liquid water b) energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celcius c) important in energy transfer from the ocean to atmosphere d) energy required to heat liquid water from 10 to 100 degrees e) (a) and (c)
a. energy required to change ice to liquid water
Heat capacity is a measure of the temperature of water T/F
b. false
Land heats and cools more rapidly than bodies of water. T/F
a. true
Latent heat is
a) the energy need to change the phase of a substance (i.e. ice to liquid water)
b) the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celcius
c) not important in energy transfer to hurricanes.
d) energy used in heating water from 0-100 deg. C
a. the energy need to change the phase of a substance (i.e. ice to liquid water)
It takes more heat to warm up water than it does to warm up rocks and soil (Earth). T/F.
a. true
The latent heat of fusion (melting) for water is 80 cal per gram. How much heat energy is required to melt 10 grams of ice? a) 80 calories
b) 540 calories
c) 800 calories
d) 54 calories
e) 5400 calories
c. 800 calories
The density of liquid water is:
a) constant, independent of temp. over the range 0-100 deg. C
b) higher than that of ice, which is why ice floats in water
c) lower than that of ice, which is why ice sinks in water
d) (a) and (b)
e) none of the above
b. higher than that of ice, which is why ice floats in water
Seawater salinity is
a) 35 ppt on average
b) 35 g/kg on average
c) the same in all parts of the world ocean
d) (a) and (b)
e) none of the above
d. a and b
One important connection between seawater chemistry and Earth's surface is rock weathering. a) T or b) F
a. true
The chemistry of ocean water is the same as river water. T/F
b. false
Seawater salinity is the same in all parts of the world ocean. T/F
b. false
The water cycle involves a) evaporation. b) precipitation. c) condensation. d) all of the above. e) none of the above.
d. all of the above
Ocean chemistry is influenced by a) inputs such as river water and volcanic gases. b) outputs such as evaporates and interaction of seawater with the seafloor. c) rock weathering d) marine life including plants and animals e) all of the above.
e. all of the above
Residence time of an element in seawater can be calculated from the total amount of the element and the input rate. a) T or b) F
a. true
A water molecule may evaporate from the ocean, become part of a cloud and then become a rain drop that becomes part of a river and flows back into the Ocean. The average "residence" time for a molecule to make this trip is ~ 4,000 years. T/F
a. true
The residence time of an element in seawater is an indication of how rapidly it is cycled. Long residence times indicate low demand and/or infrequent precipitation as a mineral. T/F
a. true
Gases dissolve more readily in cold seawater than in warm seawater. a) T or b) F
a. true
The ocean is a) well mixed and has the same temperature at all depths b) stratified into layers, such that shallow water has different properties than deep water. c) well mixed and has the same density at all depths d) (a) and (c) e) none of the above
b. stratified into layers, such that shallow water has different properties than deep water
Marine animals break down water molecules to obtain O2 T/F
a. true
The density of seawater a) decreases as it cools from 30 deg C to 5 deg C. b) increases as salinity decreases from 35 to 33 ppt. c) is minimum at 4 deg C, independent of salinity. d) increases as temperature falls and salinity rises.
d. increases as temperature falls and salinity rises.
Freshwater reaches maximum density at the freezing point. a) T or b) F
a. false
Sigma_t is a measure of a) salinity. b) density. c) temperature.
b. density
The ocean is stratified (layered) with the densest water on top and less dense water below. T/F
b. false
Which of the following is/are true about residence time for an element in seawater. A. It can be calculated from the total amount of the element present in coral reefs. B. It can be calculated from the amount in Earth's interior. C. It is given by the ratio of the total amount of the element in seawater divided by the input rate. D. None of the above.
c. It is given by the ratio of the total amount of the element in seawater divided by the input rate
The thermocline, halocline, and pycnocline a) are unrelated b) are names for the region between surface water and deep water c) refer to changes in temperature, salinity and density. d) (b) and (c)
d. b and c
There is more dissolved carbon dioxide in deepwater of the ocean than in ocean's surface waters because: a. Photosynthesis occurs primarily in deepwater b. Organisms that respire produce CO2 in deep water c. Photosynthesis in surface water uses C02 d. Deepwater is colder than shallow water and the solubility of CO2 is higher for colder water. e. All but a
e. all but a
The Coriolis effect plays a role in which of the following:
a) Deflection of wind to the left in the N. hemisphere
b) Deflection of ocean currents to the left in the S. hemisphere
c) Trade Winds that blow east to west in both the N. and S. hemispheres
d) Formation of large-scale ocean currents called gyres
e) all but (a)
e. all but a
Which statement(s) is/are true about global wind patterns?
a) Low pressure develops at 30 deg N and 30 deg S
b) Easterly winds between the Equator and 30 deg N are caused by winds that blow south and are deflected by the Coriolis effect
c) High pressure develops over the equator because of rising air
d) Winds blow directly from the equator to the poles along the surface in one large convection cell
e) All of the above
b. Easterly winds between the Equator and 30 deg N
Which statement(s) is/are true about the Coriolis effect?
a) It deflects wind and ocean currents to the right in the N. hemisphere
b) It deflects wind and ocean currents to the left in the S. hemisphere
c) It is part of the reason for Trade Winds that blow east to west in both the N. and S. hemispheres
d) It is part of the reason for large-scale ocean currents called gyres
e) all of the above
e. all of the above
Hurricanes are fueled by latent heat release in the upper atmosphere T/F
a. true
The oceans transport sensible and latent heat, and this transport plays a role in determining Earth's global temperature distribution T/F
a. true
Phytoplankton are small animals that live in the aphotic zone and are an important source of inorganic energy for nearly all ocean life T/F
b. false
The following are examples of organic matter:
a) Phytoplankton.
b) Apples.
c) Whales.
d) All of the above
e) None of the above
d. all of the above
The tropic pyramid tells us that to grow 1 kg of a top level predator-consumer such as tuna:
a) It takes 10 kg of sunlight
b) It takes 10 kg of phytoplankton
c) It takes 100 kg of seawater
d) It takes 10,000 kg of sunlight
e) It takes 10,000 kg of phytoplankton
e. it takes 10,000 kg of phytoplankton
Marine phytoplankton are photosynthetic organisms. In the photic zone of the ocean their growth rate is often limited by:
a) availability of nutrients
b) availability of Oxygen
c) availability of water
d) availability of C02
e) a and b
a. availability of nutrients
Phytoplankton production is often very high in the open ocean because of rapid upward mixing of deeper waters into the photic zone. T/F
b. false
Which of the following is/are true:
a) Ocean deep water is rich in nutrients that are essential to phytoplankton growth.
b) Deep water normally flows up into the photic zone in the open ocean.
c) Phytoplankton growth rate in polar regions is the same all year round.
d) (b) and (c)
a. Ocean deep water is rich in nutrients that are essential to phytoplankton growth.
World fish production has increased steadily for the past 50 years and advances in large-scale fishing techniques will likely allow fish catch to increase for another 50 years T/F
b. false
Baleen Whales migrate large distances to feast on plankton in the Bering and Chukchi Seas when conditions are optimum for growth of dinoflagellates T/F
a. true
Red Tides
a) Typically last from 3 to 4 months
b) Indicate blooms of potentially toxic dinoflagellates
c) Occur mainly during the winter
d) Are normally caused by wind
e) All but (a)
b) Indicate blooms of potentially toxic dinoflagellates
The Energy cycle of life in the ocean involves plankton, which convert sun light to organic matter (food). Organic matter is eventually broken down by bacteria and other organisms. This recycles the nutrients for further plankton growth. T/F
a. true
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