Terms in this set (95)
A bound (nonword) morpheme that changes the meaning or function of a root or stem to which it is attached, as the prefix -ad and suffix -ing in adjoining.
The smallest unit of meaning. It can be a letter, syllable, affix, root, or base word. The addition of a morpheme to a word adds a meaningful element or changes the meaning, as the addition of an s to the word book changes the meaning from one book to more than one book.
In phonology a minimal unit of sequential speech sounds composed of a vowel sound or a vowel-consonant combination, as in /a/, /ba/, /ab/, /bab/,etc.
A meaningful affix attached before a base word or root as in re- in reprint.
A meaningful affix attached to the end of a base, root, or stem that changes meaning or grammatical function of the word, as -en added to ox to form oxen,
The assumption underlying alphabetic writing systems that each speech sound or phoneme of a language should have its own distinctive graphic representation, wich is a letter or group of letters of the alphabet.
The smallest unit of speech, that when contrasted with another phoneme, affects the meaning of words in a language, as /b/ in book contrast with /t/ in took, /k/ in cook, /h/ in hook.
A whole-to-part approach to word study in which the student is first taught a number of sight words and then relevant phonic generalizations, which are subsequently applied to other words; deductive phonics.
A word that is immediately recognized as a whole and does not require word analysis for identification. A word taught as a whole. It is also known as a high frequency word.
High Frequency Word
A word that appears much more often than most other words in spoken or written language; also known as a sight word.
A way of teaching, reading, and spelling that stresses symbol-sound relationships, used most often in beginning instruction. Phonics also refers the correspondence of sounds to the letters that represent them.
The ability to fuse discrete phonemes into recognizable spoken words.
The ability to hear phonetic likeness and differences in phoneme and words and to distinguish among the sounds
The ability to recognize a word (or a series of words) in text effortlessly and rapidly.
A combination of two letters either consonants or vowels, representing a single speech sound. The consonant digraphs in English are th, sh, ch, and wh, ph, ck, tch.
1. A speech sound made by partial or complete closure of a part of the vocal tract, which obstructs air flow and causes audible friction in varying amounts. 2. Letters of the alphabet that are not vowels.
1. A voiced speech sound made without stoppage or friction of the air flow as it passes through the vocal tract. 2. A letter or letters that represent a vowel sound.
A vowel sound produced when the tongue moves or glides from one vowel sound toward another vowel or semivowel sound in the same syllable, as /i/ in buy and vowel sounds in boy and bough. A vowel diphthong is represented by two or more vowels together.
A written or printed representation of a phoneme as b for /b/ or oy for /oi/ in boy.
The study of the history of words.
To combine the sounds represented by letter to pronounce a word; to sound out; the instance of two or more consonants appearing together in a word but each of the consonant sounds remaining an independent phoneme
To analyze spoken or graphic symbols of a familiar language in order to ascertain their intended meaning. Note: To learn to read, one must learn the convention code in which something is written in order to decode th written message. In reading practice, the term is used primarily to refer to word identification rather than to identify higher units of meaning.
The awareness of the sounds (phonemes) that make up spoken words. Such awareness does not appear when young children learn to talk; this ability is not necessary for speaking and understanding spoken language. Is important to understand the code of alphabetic languages and letters (and letter sounds). Having phonemic awareness provides some understanding of the notion that words are made up of phonemes. Not always easily achieved. Phonemes are abstract units, and when one pronounces a word one does not produce a series of discrete phonemes, rather phonemes are folded into one another and are pronounced as a blend. Although most young children have no difficulty segmenting words into syllables, many find it very difficult to segment at the phoneme level. An important predictor of success for beginning readers.
The study of meaning in language, as the analysis of the meaning of words, phrases, sentences, discourse, and entire texts.
The division of words into syllables.
The study of the way sentences are formed and of the grammatical rules that govern their formation. 2. The pattern or structure of word order in sentences, clauses, and phrases. Examines the various ways that words can be combined to create meaning. The direct teaching of syntactic patterns is critical for comprehension of higher-level texts as well as for the development of good writing skills.
Correspondence of ending sounds of words or lines of verse.
In teaching practice, the identification of words by their sound.
The relationship between a grapheme and the phoneme(s) it represents; letter-sound correspondence, as c representing /k/ in cat and /s/ in cent.
A series of strategies used selectively by readers to recognize and read written words. The reader locates cues (e.g., letter-sound correspondences) in a word that reveals enough about it to help in pronouncing it and attaching meaning to it.
A cueing system can include any of the various sources of information that might aid identification of a word unrecognized at first glance. These are cues that every good reader uses to decode words in the context of the text to help predict or guess. the three main cueing systems are: semantics (meaning) 2. syntax (structure) 3. graph-phonemic (visual or letter-sound information).
The clear, easy, and quick written or spoken expression of ideas. In reading, this means freedom from word-identification problems that might hinder comprehension in silent reading or hinder the expression of ideas in oral reading; automaticity.
The study of the structure and forms of words, including derivation, inflection, roots, base words, and combining forms.
A component of fluency that refers to reading with expression, which includes the use of appropriate emphasis, stress, intonation, pitch, pauses, and phrasing that demonstrates understanding of syntax and mechanics.
Synthetic Method of Phonics
A way of teaching beginning reading by starting with word parts or elements, as sounds, or syllables, and later combining them into words.
1. The process of perceiving similarities and differences in stimuli by sight. 2. The ability to engage in such a process.
A broader term that phonemic awareness, it refers to language sensitivity and ability to manipulate language at the levels of words, syllables, rhymes, and individual speech sounds.
A graphic character or symbol that can represent a phonetic sound, phoneme, or word.
A term used to classify literary works into categories such as novel, mystery, historical fictions, biography, short story, and poem.
The act, process, or results of identifying the specific nature of a disorder or disability through the observation and examination. Note:Also includes the planning of instruction and and assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the student. (in education)
A reader whose performance meets or exceeds normal expectations with respect to age and ability; an independent reader. A reader who reads at an adequate pace with sufficient accuracy and correct intonation to enable comprehension to occur.
The permissible part of accepted arrangements of speech sound in forming morphemes and words; the rules for producing the phonemes in words.
R-Controlled Vowel Sound
The modified sound of a vowel immediately preceding /r/ in the same syllable, as in care, never, sir, curse, etc.
The identification of word-meaning elements, as re and read in reread, to help understand the meaning of a word as a whole, morpheme analysis.
The application of phonics skills in reproducing the sound(s) represented by a letter or letter group in a word.
A vowel and any of the following consonants of a syllable, as /ook/ in book or brook, /ik/ in strike, and /a/ in play.
a diacritical mark that indicates the vowel sound in an unstressed syllable of a word. It can be spelled with any vowel letters.
A pronounceable combination of graphic characters, usually trigrams, that do not make a word, as in kak, vor, men, but are pronounced in the English language.
In teaching practice , a word whose pronunciation may not be accurately predicted from its spelling.
Frustrated Reading Level
A readability or grade level of material that is too difficult to be read successfully by a student, even with normal classroom instruction and support. The frustration level is reached when a student cannot read a selection with more than 89 percent word-recognition.
The essence and ultimate purpose of reading, is the ability to gain meaning from what is read. The hierarchy of skills ranges from concrete to abstract, and it includes levels such as literal, inferential, analytical, and evaluative. The various levels of skills are also referred to as lower-order and higher-order skills.
A type of text used in beginning reading instruction, often from Little Books for the purpose of fluency practice. Can be independently decoded or sounded out based on what the student knows. The text contains many repetitions of sounds and phonic elements that students have already been taught, along with a limited number of high-frequency words.
Reading instructions conducted in small, flexible groups in which everyone reads simultaneously and for which the teacher provides the structure and purpose for reading and for responding to the material read. Little Books are often used for guided reading.
A child's manipulation of sounds and words for language exploration and practice or for pleasure (using alliteration, creating rhymes, singing songs, clapping syllables, etc.)
Referring to activities designed to develop needed attitudes and skills before formal instruction in reading.
Concepts of Print
Familiarity with print conventions, such as reading left to right, top to bottom; the direction of print on a page; the use of spaces to denote words; the idea that print represents words and punctuation. And important predictor of learning to read.
To change a message into, as encode oral language into writing, encode and idea into words, or encode physical law into mathematical symbols.
Graded Word List
A list of words ranked by grade level, reader level, or other level of difficulty of complexity, often used to assess competence in word identification, knowledge of word meanings, and spelling.
Awareness and knowledge of one's mental processes. Is simply "thinking about thinking" One example of a metacognitive task is when readers self-monitor their comprehension of text. While "thinking about" their understanding of text, readers may adjust their reading speed to fit the difficulty level.
A group of letters consisting of vowel or vowel team followed by a consonant or consonant blend (rime), to which many different onsets (consonant or consonant blends) can be added. Word families are also known as spelling patterns or phonograms.
Basal Reading Program
A collection of student texts and workbooks, teacher's manuals, and supplemental materials used for development of reading/language arts and sometimes writing instruction used chiefly in the elementary and middle school grades.
Information from the immediate textual setting that helps identify a word or word group, as by recognizing words, phrases, sentence illustrations, syntax, typography, etc.
The intentional design and delivery of information by the teacher to the students. It begins with 1. the teacher's modeling or demonstration of the skill or strategy. 2. a structured and substanstial opportunity for students to practice and apply newly taught skills and knowledge under the teacher's direction and guidance; and 3. an opportunity for feedback.
Minimally Contrasting Pairs
Words that differ only in the initial or medial or final sound. (e.g. pest/best, scrapple/scrabble, cat/cap).
An environment in which students are provided many opportunities to interact with printed language, and an abundance and variety of printed materials are available and accessible. Students have many opportunities to read and to be read to. In such an environment, reading and writing are modeled by the teacher and used for a wide variety of authentic everyday purposes.
The beginning stage of the development of the association of print with meaning that starts early in a child's life and continues until the child reaches the stage of conventional reading and writing; "the reading and writing concepts and behaviors of young children that precede and develop into conventional literacy."
Informal Reading Inventory (IRI)
The use of a graded series of passages of increasing difficulty to determine student's strength, weaknesses, and strategies in word identification and comprehension and to determine a student's independent, instruction, and frustration reading levels. Comprehension questions are often asked after each passage is read.
Learning Center or Station
A location within a classroom in which students are presented with instructional materials, specific directions, clearly defined objectives, and opportunities for self-evaluation.
In a basal reading program, a booklet used before the first reader to introduce students to features in texts and books and sometimes to introduce specific characters found later in a series.
A word wall is a systematically organized collection of words displayed in large letters or on cards on a wall or other large display space in the classroom. The words are usually listed under their beginning letter. The purpose of word walls is to work on spelling by displaying sight words and words that belong to word families.
A graphic organizer that is used to involve students in thinking about and planning what they will study, learn, read about, or write about within a larger topic. A teacher may begin with brainstorming discussion of topics related to a particular them and then represent subtopics through the use of a web drawn on the board. Webbing can be used to encourage student to consider what they know about each subtopic or what they want to learn.
In emergent literacy, a learner's growing recognition of the conventions and characteristics of a written language.
A method for improving memory, especially the use of pattern strategies to improve memorizing a string of facts.
Spelling of sounds processed phonologically. ( A child's attempt to map speech to print.) It is also known as phonetic spelling and temporary spelling.
A test used to analyze strengths and weaknesses in content-oriented skills. Note: Diagnostic tests may permit comparisons among several subabilities of the same individuals and sometimes comparisons of strong and weak points of a group or class. Available instruments for the diagnosis of reading difficulties vary widely in the thoroughness of analysis they permit and in the specific procedures followed.
A visual representation of facts and concepts from a text and their relationships within an organized frame. Are effective tools for thinking and learning. They help teachers and students represent abstract or implicit information in more concrete form, they depict relationships among facts and concepts, they aid in organizing and elaborating ideas, they relate new information with prior knowledge, and they effectively store and retrieve information.
The way a language is written (encoded); spelling
A beginning book for the teaching of reading; specifically, the first formal textbook in a basal reading program, usually preceded by a readiness book and one or more preprimers.
A graphic organizer of major events and ideas from a story to help guide students' thinking and heighten their awareness of the structure of stories. The teacher can model this process by fillin out a chart on a projected image while reading. Or students can complete a chart individually or in groups after a story is read, illustrating, or noting the characters, setting, compare/contrast, problem/solutions, climax, conflict, and so forth.
A medical term for a developmental reading disability, which presumable congenital and often hereditary, and which may vary in degree from mild to severe. Note: Originally called word blindness, occurs in persons who have adequate vision, hearing, intelligence, and general language functioning. People who have this frequently have difficulty in spelling and in acquiring a second language, suggesting that it is part of a broad type of language disability. Difficulties with phonology are typical in most cases.
a list of related words posted in the classroom, often written on cards, to increase students' exposure to infrequently occurring vocabulary words that they would usually encounter only in specialized contexts. The words can all be related to one topic of study, or in other cases can be related by common spelling patterns.
Temporary Support, guidance, or assistance provided to a student on a new or complex task. For example, students work in partnership with a more advanced peer or adult who scaffolds the task by engaging in appropriate instructional interactions designed to model, assist, or provide necessary information. These interactions should eventually lead to independence.
A form of collaborative learning in which students work with their peers in editing a piece of writing.
A shared writing experience used to assist emergent readers in learning to read and write. With help from the teacher, students dictate sentences about a shared experience, such as a story, movie, or event. The teacher stretches each word orally so students can distinguish its sounds and letters as they use chart paper to write the letter while repeating the sound. After each word has been completed, the teacher and students reread it. The students take turns writing letters to complete the words and sentences. The completed charts are posted on the wall so the students can reread them or rely on them for standard spelling.
The use of the results of student performance on current tasks to plan future learning activities; instruction in which diagnosis and instruction are fused into a single ongoing process.
pertains to orthography, the art or study of correct spelling according to established usage.
The number of different words that are recognized without word analysis, words understood quickly and easily; sight vocabulary.
The series of sequential steps involved in a writing project including prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. Repeated drafting, revising, and editing may occur several times during the process.
The appraisal of students progress by using materials and procedures directly from the curriculum taught.
The first language a child learns to speak.
The initial creative and planning stage of writing, prior to drafting, in which the writer formulates ideas, gathers information, and considers ways in which to organize a piece of writing. The first step in the writing process.
students learn to blend phonemes into spoken word. t: what word is /c/ /a/ /t/? C: /c/ /a/ /t/ is cat.
pulling sounds in words apart.
the reader bring aware of understanding of tex and using specific strategies when needed.(Metacognition)
Fix up strategies
identifying that there is difficulty, identifying what the difficulty is, restating what the author means, and re-reading for meaning.
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