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Chapter 25 Quiz
Terms in this set (108)
Why did the FDR admin remain aloof from world crises?
U.S. was in depression, axis powers (italy, germany & japan) became aggressive & militaristic, and americans are ambivalent - avoid stumbling into another war OR help embattled democracies abroad
What did FDR put first during the depression?
U.S. economic interests
What did Sec. of State Hull push for?
free trade and international economic cooperation
FDR balks, but looks at who differently?
Good Neighbor Policy: What did FDR commit to with Latin America?
Good Neighbor Policy: When was the policy announced?
1932 Inaugural address
Good Neighbor Policy: Why did FDR reject TR's "Big Stick" policy?
believed U.S. had moral right to use force to correct "wrongdoing" in Latin America
Good Neighbor Policy: U.S. declares what?
no state had the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another
Based on the G.N. policy, where did FDR withdraw troops from?
Dominican Republic and Haiti
Based on the G.N. policy, FDR obtained a treaty with?
Panama - therefore reducing US role in Panama's commercial rights to the Canal Zone
Based on the G.N. policy, FDR persuades American bankers to?
loosen grip on Haiti's banking system
Based on the G.N. policy, FDR renounces what?
Cuba: What did falling sugar exports imposed by the Smoot-Hawley Tariff lead to?
economic crisis - 1933 revolution led by Grau San Martin
Cuba: U.S. refused to recognize San Martin gov't, but didn't send in?
Cuba: Where does FDR send indirect aid to?
a conservative revolt led by Fulgencio Batista
Cuba: 1934: Who/what "visited" San Martin?
Sumner Welles (U.S. Ambassador to Cuba) and U.S. warships
Cuba: Who was overthrown and replaced by Fulgencio Batista?
Cuba: What happened to exports to the US?
Cuba: What allowed Batista to retain power?
economic assistance - he will rule cuba on & off until overthrown by Castro (1959)
Mexico: Who took power in 1936?
Mexico: What did Cardenas promptly nationalize?
several US & British oil companies
Mexico: US conceded Mexico's right to?
nationalized - but insisted on fair compensation
Mexico: How did the US pressure Cardenas economically?
by suspending US purchases of Mexican silver
Mexico: After negotiations, who worked out an agreement?
Mexico & the oil companies
The G.N. policy substitutes economic leverage for?
military intervention - it brings better relations necessary for hemispheric unity during WWII and Cold War
Fascism: Italy: What did Mussolini hope to recreate?
Fascism: Germany: What did Hitler and the Nazi's want?
Fascism: Japan: Who took control of the gov't and began policy of expansion?
nationalistic militarists - they acquired coal, petroleum, metals, and timber for heavy industry
Fascism: Japan: Japanese troops occupied Manchuria
set up a puppet regime - renamed "Manchukuo"
Fascism: Japan: 1937
Japan launched full scale war against China
Fascism: Japan: FDR objects to what?
Japan's aggressiveness (more than Italy's & Germany's) because it threatened US economic interests
Fascism: 1936: Germany, Italy & Japan sign?
treaties of alliance & mutual defense
What did Americans believe about the decision for war in 1917?
a ghastly mistake
What did books and films say about the idea that war was a mistake?
US had been dragged in by banking & corporate interests desperate to protect their millions in loans & weapon sales to England & France
How did books/films explain propaganda techniques?
US brainwashed people into supporting the war
senate investigation headed by Senator Gerald Nye
Nye Committee: What was the evidence?
the involvement of US banks & corps in financing WWI and supplying arms to the Allies
Nye Committee: What did it conclude the most important factors leading to involvement in WWI?
the need to protect US bank loans to Allies
laws passed to support longing for peace - tried to prevent same circumstances which got us into WWI
Neutrality Acts: outlawed what to nations at war?
arm sales or loans
Neutrality Acts: forbade Americans from traveling on?
ships of belligerent powers
Neutrality Acts: 1937
congress extends acts to cover Spain's civil war
Neutrality Acts: outbreak of WWII
belligerents could buy weapons provided they paid in cash & used their own ships for transport
Critics of Neutrality Acts: Laws failed to distinguish?
aggressors & victims, subsequently helping aggressive nations
Critics of Neutrality Acts: When Japan invade China (1937), FDR refused to?
invoke provisions of the act in order to remain free to extend loans to the Chinese
1938: Louis Ludlow
proposed constitutional amendment requiring national referendum on any US declaration of war (except in case of direct attack)
How does Congress & FDR react to Ludlow's proposed amendment?
Congress - barely rejects it
FDR - makes direct plea against it
American reaction to fascism and militarism of Italy, Germany, & Japan
many admired Mussolini for his discipline, etc...
German American Bund
pro-Nazi organization filled Madison Square Garden
led by anti-Semite William Dudley Pelley; had the S.S acronym
Some liked Hitler simply because of his?
How did unsympathetic Americans ridicule rather than fear Hitler & Mussolini?
political cartoonists drew Mussolini's jaw & Hitler's goose-stepping troops
How were some Americans nervous/uneasy toward fascism?
Howard Mumford Jones: warned that Nazi book burning & suppression of free speech threatened freedom everywhere
Most Americans felt how about US military response?
they opposed it
What did FDR advocate in 1933?
adequate defenses and naval expansion
FDR: dealt with domestic issues while dealing with?
FDR: what did he seek from world leaders?
FDR never went ahead of what?
FDR - 1935:
US would never again enter a foreign war
FDR - 1937:
suggested possibility of a "quarantine" of aggressor nations to stop "the epidemic of world lawlessness" - he backed off when public didn't agree
What did FDR think was best to do with Hitler?
What did FDR send to Chamberlain after the signing of the Munich Pact?
a telegram of praise
What did FDR's telegram of praise assure?
that he was "not a bit upset" over the agreement
Why Americans were hesitant to respond to events in Europe: US foreign policy
Since 1790s, US foreign policy sought to avoid entanglement in Old World quarrels & disputes
Why Americans were hesitant to respond to events in Europe: isolationism
deep-seated isolationist impulse reinforced by WWI because most felt it was a mistake
Why Americans were hesitant to respond to events in Europe: the Depression
the Depression preoccupied US public awareness
the 1936 summer olympics in Berlin was the only real confrontation with?
How did Washington DC respond to Japan's invasion of China?
U.S. had a long history of what with China?
How did Americans feel towards China?
interested & sympathetic
Religious groups saw China as?
ripe for missionary work
Gov't policy makers saw China's economic potential for?
US exports - Open Door policy
What threatened Open Door policy?
Japanese expansionism of 1930s (Manchuria & then China)
The closing of China to US meant loss of?
$100 million in annual cotton sales
Japanese goods (textiles) might do what?
flood world market
FDR privately speculated about?
possibility of war with Japan
How did Washington react to Japan's actions in China?
symbolically - Hoover & FDR refused to recognize Japan's puppet regime in Manchuria
After Japan's invasion of China, US did what?
sent loans to China and urged Americans to boycott Japanese silk
U.S. ambassador to Japan, Joseph Grew
protests Japan's violation of Open Door policy
What did Japan say about Open Door?
it was "inapplicable" to the condition of "today & tomorrow"
When did Germany invade Czechoslovakia
March 15, 1939 - 5 and 1/2 months after "peace in our time"
5 months after Germany invades Czechoslovakia
How did some feel about US role as the debate intensified?
some still held out for peace - "the place to save democracy is at home"
Pacifist & neutralist sentiment was?
A Call to Arms - warns of the "malignant character and cancerous spread" of fascism
After the fall of Czech & Albania (1939) FDR called on Hitler & Mussolini to?
pledge not to invade 31 specifically listed nations
What was Mussolini's response to FDR's call not to invade specific nations?
mocked his physical disability; saying his paralysis had apparently reached his brain
FDR - Oct. 1938 -
asks Congress for a $300 million military appropriation
FDR - Nov. 1938 -
instructed the Army Air Corps to plan for annual production of 20,000 planes
FDR - Jan 1939 -
asked Congress for a $1.3 billion defense budget
What did FDR call Hitler & Mussolini?
"two madmen" who "respect force and force alone"
denied German Jews citizenship & many legal rights
1938 - anti Semitic campaign became more brutal
attempting to force Jews out of the country
Why did Hitler fine $500 billion on an entire German Jewish population?
because of an assassination of a German official in Paris
Kristallnacht (the Night of Broken Glass)
systematic & well-coordinated violent rampage carried out all over Germany & Austria
Hitler's intent became obvious
outright extermination - "final solution" to the "Jewish problem"
How many Jews came to the US from 1933 to 1938?
How did the U.S. react to the mass of Nazism's Jewish victims?
unwilling/reluctant to grant sanctuary
Nazism Jewish victims: Congress consistently rejected efforts to?
liberalize immigration law w/discriminatory quotas
Americans towards Jews
abhorred the persecution of Jews, but 75% responded NO to a survey asking if US should amend immigration act to admit a large number of Jews
The St. Louis
950 Jewish refugees denied landing permit in Heaven, sailed to Ft. Lauderdale, but U.S. refused request to unload human cargo
What ended FDR's thought process to keep peace & security?
german victories in western Europe in 1940
FDR tried economic intervention rather than military involvement with Britain- Pearl Harbor attack ended this
What was the gloomiest year for US?
1942 - military thought it would be a 7-15 year war
What happens just two days after Hitler invades Poland on Sept 1 1939?
Britain & France declare war on Germany; FDR invoked Neutrality Acts
nations engaged in war to purchase arms in the u.s. if belligerents paid cash and carried the arms in their own ships
Lull in European War "phony war"
Germany takes Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, and France
Battle of Britain (1940)
Hitler bombed cities/civilians, Churchill pleaded for more U.S. aid, most favored support for Britain, some opposed assistance because it was a waste of materials or they considered the war not vital to U.S. interests
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