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Oldest Neolithic community in the West Bank between Israel and Jordan


first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture


Capital city of Egypt and home of the ruling dynasties during the Middle and New Kingdoms. Amon Re, patron deity of Thebes, became one of the chief gods of Egypt. Monarchs were buried across the river in the Valley of the Kings. (p. 43)


The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids. (p. 43)

The Great Pyramid

The largest and grandest of the pyramids; built for King Khufu around 2540 B.C.; one of three still standing in Giza on the west bank of the Nile


a huge desert stretching across most of North Africa. This is the largest desert in the world.

Nile River

The world's longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea

Catal Huyuk

One of first true cities in history, created in the Neolithic Era in 6500 to 5500 BC, from which were created agriculture, trading, temples, housing, and religions


capital of Assyria


The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E. (p. 29)


rock-filled rapids

Upper Egypt

the southern part of ancient Egypt which had the delta as its natural barrier

Lower Egypt

the northern part of ancient egypt which had cataracts as natural barriers


the ancient region lying between the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and the Mediterranean: the land promised by God to Abraham


A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.


An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 100 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.

Euphrates River

a river running through Sumer, Mespotamia, provided resources for the Mespotamians

Tigris River

a river running through Sumer, Mespotamia, provided resources for the Mespotamians.


an ancient city of Nubia and Kush, situated downstream from the Fourth Cataract of the Nile river, in present-day Sudan


center of the kush dynasty from about 250 B.C. to A.D. 150; known for its manufacture of iron weapons and tools.


Large ancient city of the Indus civilization, located in present day Pakistan

Indus River Valley

Location of the first Indian Civilization


this mountain range has the highest peak in the world


Hindu God - The Destroyer


The captial of both Muryan and Gupta empires

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