first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture
Capital city of Egypt and home of the ruling dynasties during the Middle and New Kingdoms. Amon Re, patron deity of Thebes, became one of the chief gods of Egypt. Monarchs were buried across the river in the Valley of the Kings. (p. 43)
The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids. (p. 43)
The Great Pyramid
The largest and grandest of the pyramids; built for King Khufu around 2540 B.C.; one of three still standing in Giza on the west bank of the Nile
a huge desert stretching across most of North Africa. This is the largest desert in the world.
The world's longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea
One of first true cities in history, created in the Neolithic Era in 6500 to 5500 BC, from which were created agriculture, trading, temples, housing, and religions
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E. (p. 29)
the ancient region lying between the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and the Mediterranean: the land promised by God to Abraham
An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 100 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
an ancient city of Nubia and Kush, situated downstream from the Fourth Cataract of the Nile river, in present-day Sudan
center of the kush dynasty from about 250 B.C. to A.D. 150; known for its manufacture of iron weapons and tools.