43 terms

Reproduction

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Asexual reproduction
offspring are produced without the fusion of gametes. genetically identical to parent
Sexual reproduction
offspring are produced by the fusion of gametes. not genetically identical to parents
Gamete
Sex cell
Sperm
Male gamete
Ovum
Female gamete
Haploid
cell containing one chromosome from each homologous pair (n)
Diploid
cell containing both chromosomes from a homologous pairs (2n)
Homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic content
Synapsis
The pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. (creates tetrads)
Disjunction
homologous pairs separate and are pulled to opposite poles of the cell during anaphase I of meiosis. (separates tetrads)
Tetrad
A paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids.
Crossing Over
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
Meiosis
Cell division that produces haploid gametes
Gonad
Male and female reproductive organs, responsible for production of gametes
reproduction
a process by which an organism produces more organisms of the same kind
zygote
Diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg. (a fertilized egg)
Fertilization
Fusion of male and female gametes.
Ovulation
Process by which ovum is released from an ovary
Embryo
the name for the developing organism during the first eight weeks after conception.
Endometrium
Inner lining of the uterus
Gestation
Length of time from conception to birth (pregnancy)
Testes
Male gonads that produce the male sex cells - sperm (testosterone)
Ovaries
Female gonads that produce the female sex cells - ovum (estrogen and progesterone)
epididymis
A long, coiled duct on the outside of the testis in which sperm mature.
Vas deferens
Duct that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
Oviduct
Fallopian tube; tube that carries eggs from an ovary to the uterus
Uterus
the womb; Female organ of reproduction used to house the developing fetus.
Vagina
birth canal; A muscular, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the body
Cervix
A muscular ring that separates the uterus and the vagina
Urethra
a tube-like passageway that extends from the urinary bladder to the outside tip of the penis in the male or near the vaginal opening in the female
Scrotum
External sac enclosing the testes
Sister chromatids
identical copies of a chromosome joined by a centromere
Menstrual cycle
A monthly series of hormone-controlled changes that prepare the uterine lining for a pregnancy
menstruation
Last phase of the menstrual cycle in which the lining of the uterus along with blood and the unfertilized ovum are discharged through the vagina.
identical twins
Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
fraternal twins
Twins who develop from separate eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment
placenta
A structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother.
umbilical cord
membranous duct connecting the fetus with the placenta
fetus
the term for the developing organism between the embryonic stage and birth.
still birth
death of a fetus at or after the 20th week of gestation
miscarriage
Death of the fetus that occurs within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy
infertility
is reduced or lost ability to conceive and carry a baby, either for a short time or forever
sterility
never having the ability to conceive and carry a baby.
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