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EOH 353 MIDTERM REVIEW
Terms in this set (74)
The environment plays a role in human health through associations with which of the following?
Acute conditions, allergic responses, disability, and chronic disease.
In The Jungle (1906), Upton Sinclair described the deplorable conditions in the meat processing industry.
Cholera outbreaks occurred in New York City during the mid-1800s.
The estimated global burden of disease (percentage) linked to environmental sources is:
25% to 33%.
All of the following statements about the 2009 swine flu outbreak are true, except:
It was caused by the H5N1 virus.
In 2050, the world's three most populous countries will be:
India, China, United States.
The fatal 1930 incident in Muese Valley, Belgium was associated with leakage of toxic chemicals from a former dump site.
Environmental risk transition is most likely to be characterized by:
Control of household risks and creation of a new set of problems.
Compared with adults, children represent a group that is especially vulnerable to environmental hazards for the following reasons, except:
They spend more time indoors.
On Airs, Waters, and Places was significant because it:
Emphasized the role of the environment in people's health.
Which of the following are contributions of epidemiology to environmental health?
Methodology for study designs, Descriptive and analytic studies, Use of observational data, and Concern with populations.
A national survey of asthma conducted on May 1, 2012, obtained the following results for the state of Oklahoma:
X = The number of residents with asthma
Y = The population of the state on June 30, 2012, and all members of the population were considered at risk
Z = The number of new cases of asthma diagnosed during 2012.
The incidence rate of asthma during 2012 (per 100,000) would be expressed as:
(Z/Y) × 100,000.
Which of the following historical figures was among the first to expound on the role of environmental factors in causing diseases?
The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by which of the following?
The incidence rate for that disease in a given period of time.
John Snow, in Snow on Cholera:
Was an English anesthesiologist who used natural experiments.
The Texas Sharpshooter Effect illustrates:
One cause of spurious or chance clustering.
Which of the following activities characterizes the epidemiological approach (as opposed to the clinical approach)?
Study of cancer occurrence in populations.
Sir Percival Pott, who wrote Chirurgical Observations:
Was a London surgeon who identified an environmental cause of cancer.
Prevalence measures aid in:
Assessing variations in disease occurrence, the development of hypotheses, and describing the scope of health problems.
Environmental health science is concerned with agent, host, and environmental factors in disease (the epidemiological triangle). Which statement is true about the triangle?
Disease causality includes three major factors: agent, host, and environment.
Agent factors can include particles, toxic chemicals, and pesticides.
The environment is the domain in which disease-causing agents may exist.
The host is the person who affords lodgment of an infectious agent.
Which of the following abbreviations is used to describe toxic effects of chemicals?
Of the following routes of exposure, which one has the most rapid effect?
The existence of a dose-response relationship may be used to establish which of the following kinds of information?
Rate of accumulation of harmful effects.
Causal association between a toxin and biological effects.
Both causal association between a toxin and biological effects and minimum dosages needed to produce a biological effect.
Minimum dosages needed to produce a biological effect.
One of the founders of toxicology was:
The poisonous substance in Amanita phalloides ("death cap" mushroom) is an example of a(n):
Subacute exposures are those that last for:
1 month or less.
The concentration and toxicity of a chemical in the body are affected by:
Route of entry into the body.
Duration of exposure.
Received dose of the chemical.
Which of the following refers to toxic substances that are man-made or result from human (anthropogenic) activity?
Which term indicates that the combined effect of exposures to two or more chemicals that is greater than the sum of their individual effects?
When highly controlled and standardized conditions are desired, human subjects are used in toxicologic testing.
Which of the following is
an example of in vitro testing for toxicology?
Experiments with cells derived from human sources.
Which of the following describes the principle of environmental sustainability?
A strong, just, and wealthy society can be consistent with a clean environment.
Which of the following aspects is not included in the built environment?
With respect to the policy cycle, what problem(s) may be encountered in the agenda setting stage?
Lack of information on risk; lack of coordination.
How can the built environment encourage healthy lifestyles?
By encouraging people to walk more, encouraging the use of public transportation, and co-locating businesses and residences.
With respect to the policy cycle, what problem(s) may be encountered in the problem definition stage?
Poorly defined problems.
What problem(s) may be encountered in the policy implementation stage?
Lack of government support.
Which of the following describes the polluter-pays principle?
A polluter should bear the expense of carrying out pollution prevention and control measures.
What piece of legislation gave the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the power to seek out those parties responsible for any release and assure their cooperation in the cleanup?
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.
When the nature of the risks associated with an environmental hazard or toxin is uncertain, planners are left in a quandary about what aspects of the exposure require policy interventions.
Despite medical advances, infectious diseases are taking an increasing toll in the developed world.
What agency is home to the National Toxicology Program (NTP), the nation's premier program for the testing and evaluation of agents in our environment?
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
Which of the following metals is not classified as a major toxic metal with multiple effects?
Possible methods for exposure to metals include which of the following?
Inhalation of metal fumes.
Skin contact with dusts.
Inhalation of dusts.
The symptoms of long-term exposure to lower levels of toxic metals include which of the following?
Chronic illness effects.
Which of the following statements about heavy metals is true?
Their specific gravity exceeds that of water by five or more times.
Minimata disease was associated with ingestion of seafood tainted with which of the following?
Substances on the National Priorities List (United States) have which of the following characteristics?
They are scheduled for possible remediation under Superfund.
They appear frequently in uncontrolled or abandoned waste sites.
They have potential for human exposure.
They have known or suspected toxicity.
Which toxic heavy metal is associated with melanosis, a dermatologic condition that can cause the darkening of the skin of the entire body?
Less developed countries increasingly are being selected as the dumping grounds for electronic waste, which is scavenged by unwitting individuals who are not aware of the hazardous nature of this waste.
Itai-itai disease, which began occurring in the Jinzu River basin in Japan as early as 1912, is one of the conditions attributed to which toxic metal?
Contact with high concentrations of toxic metals is most likely to occur in an occupational setting.
The film Erin Brockovich called attention to the potential hazards associated with groundwater pollution from arsenic.
Leishmaniasis is endemic to:
The Middle East.
Resurgence of malaria has been attributed to:
Both discontinuance of DDT spraying and Mosquitoes' development of resistance.
The most deadly form of malaria is caused by:
The causative agent for malaria is a type of:
Which of the following is an example of a zoonotic disease?
Which of the following statements about zoonotic diseases is most likely to be true?
An animal infected with a zoonotic agent may be free from symptoms.
Methods for transmission of zoonotic pathogens include:
Ingestion of contaminated foods.
Bite or scratch of an animal.
Contact with the skin.
Which of the following is true about rabies?
Post-exposure prophylaxis has prevented human rabies successfully.
Methods for the control of mosquito-borne diseases include:
Removing standing water around the home.
Monitoring the presence of viruses in sentinel chickens and birds.
Wearing long clothing.
Use of mosquito-eating fish
Amastigotes are an extracellular form of the organism that has flagella, whereas promastigotes are nonflagellated intracellular forms.
Which of the following is one of the agents responsible for many publicized outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness on cruise ships?
Chemical hazards that may be present in food include:
A justification for the hazard analysis of critical control points is that:
Health hazards can be introduced at any point from harvest to consumption.
The advantages of genetically modified foods do not include:
Reduction in genetic diversity.
When used as a food additive, nitrates, and nitrites:
May react with other substances to form carcinogens.
Which of the following is an interpretation of the Delaney Clause?
Carcinogenic chemicals are not permitted in food in any amounts.
The purpose of metaphylaxis is to:
Both cure and prevent disease among an entire population of animals.
What organism can thrive in an environment that has a heavy concentration of salt or sugar, an environment in which most other bacteria are unable to tolerate?
Which of the following indicates the occurrence of a similar illness among two or more people that an investigation linked to consumption of a common meal or food items?
Just one case of what foodbourne illness is considered an outbreak?
In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) maintains responsibility at the federal level for surveillance of foodbourne illness.
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