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Terms in this set (55)
What are the two questions raised by a comparative approach to communication in culture?
What is at stake (what are the values)
How communicative behavior is embedded in wider structures of power and authority. example: how we greet each other
What does "ethnography" mean according to Clifford Geertz?
"Ethnography is about establishing rapport, selecting informants, transcribing texts, taking genealogies, mapping fields, keeping a diary. (30)" more focused on meaning of doing an ethnography study and what intellectually is gained
Thin vs Thick description
Key words: Cultural category, descriptions
What does "ethnography" mean according to Liela Monaghan
"Ethnography refers to the formal presentation of findings. (35)" Ethnography means writing about people, an in depth study, helps us gain reflective awareness.
Writing: jottings, fieldnotes, transcriptions, ethnography
Key words: Culture, individuals, groups
What does "ethnography" mean according to Michael Agar
"Ethnography is making sense out of human differences in terms of human similarities.
Study and recording of human cultures; description of the customs of individual people and cultures
Key words: Rich points, cultural difference, patterns
How do Goodman, Robinson, and Monaghan define "social business in the introduction to the book?
Social Business- "how a particular interaction connects to a larger questions of values, identity or power"
How does Goodman define it in chapter 6?
social business is the ends that are achieved in particular interactions and to the larger questions of values, identity, or power that inform and emerge from these interactions
def of culture 1
What happens to you when you encounter differences, become aware of something in yourself, and work to figure out why the differences appeared. Culture is an awareness, a consciousness, one that reveals the hidden self and opens paths to other ways of being. Culture starts when you realize that you've got a problem with language, and the problem has to do with who you are. (Agar, page 17)
def of culture 2
Culture is a working assumption, an assumption that a translation is both necessary and possible to make sense of rich points. The assumption is based on observations of recurrent patterns of rich points across some common person/ situation categories. The assumption is, there are shared meanings/contexts unknown to you. You have to figure out what they are. (Agar, page 26)
def of culture 3
Cultures and selves are not given, they are made; even, like fictions, they are "made up." Cultures and persons are more than just created; they are creative. They hold out the promise of reimagining and refashioning the world. (Conquergood, page 42)
when people takes our speech to be a sign of our essence (when words resemble what they stand for)
example: moo or quack
words that don't resemble what they stand for example: here or this
words refer to an object or state of being
example: chair or love
Explain how the anecdotes Tannen uses in "Conversation Signals" can be understood as examples of people mistaking indexes for icons (that is, of "prejudice").
In Tannen's article, Betty doesn't speak much so Sara fills these pauses with her own dialect because she senses things may get awkward. However, on the other hand, when Betty does try to talk, she often pauses and Sara takes this as a que that she is finished speaking when in fact she is not. This is an example of Sara mistaking Betty's indexes for icons. Just because it is silent during a pause does not mean Betty is finished.
According to Harriet Ottenheimer, how did Cousin Joe use language to give his stories authenticity.
his audience is able to relate to him because they can 'hear' his dialect through the text
How did he use language to create an authorial voice?
'he used exaggerated dialect to mock both himself and his audiences.
Use Wilce's concept of indexical signs to help explain why his language choices ("code-switching") helped him accomplish these different social ends.
Interpreting your audience's expectations and then playing into (and playing with) the role you think they expect requires a skkillful balance of reality and pretense'
What social business does silence accomplish in Bauman's article about the "Quakers"?
The Quakers used silence as a means of showing respect and honesty - they'd rather say nothing than lie.
What social business does silence accomplish in Lepselter's encounter with the police?
Lepselter used silence to show respect to a powerful authority figure (a police officer) and to avoid conflict with said authority figure
What social business does silence accomplish Basso's Western Apache article?
When Meeting Strangers: to establish a social distance from strangers, because a willingness to violate convention is attributed to some urgent need - money, labor, transportation.
Courting: silence shows modesty
Children coming home: fear that children have developed anglo attitudes and values, and that the children have come to view their parents as ignorant, old fashioned, and no longer deserving of respect.
getting cussed out: a matter of safety - an angry person is 'temporarily crazy' and difficult to reson with
being with people who are sad: they are so burdened with intense grief that speaking requires an unusual amount of physical effort - matter of courtesy. They may also be unstable similarly to how an enraged person is.
According to Thomas Murray, what social business is accomplished by swearing according?
"to convey power and intensity, to achieve a catharsis, to draw attention, to provoke one's listeners, to discredit whoever or whatever one is talking about to alter or redefine one's image, to identify oneself as a member of a given group" Murray sees 'dirty word usage' as a means of testing and experimenting on the cusp between adolescence and adulthood.
What social business does swearing accomplish for comedians according to Susan Seizer?
create a mutually enjoyable, intimate experience for both audiences and comedy community...swear words help foster a sense of informality that allows audiences to better follow comics out into the wilder reaches of their comedic imaginations. "
Express Seizer's thesis regarding the non-denotational nature of language in your own words. Try explaining it using the terms found in Lakoff's triangle.
oftentimes language uses a form of terms that in a literal sense are illogical in the context - the term 'shit' does not always refer to human or animal feces. the underlying meaning and function of the words is implied through the context (i.e., 'shit' may be an expression of emphasis or excitement or a reference to general 'things')
Examine Gaia Watchman's use of emoticons and fonts in the transcript on page 86. Explain the social business these communicative gestures accomplish by using Deborah Tannen's "Conversation Signals" article.
the exchanges encode elements of spoken language by inducating ton (!!!!), facial expression (:)) and familiarity (maj).
How can you explain these gestures in Gaia Watchman's use of emoticons using Dwight Conquergood's four ways of considering performance?
Play- watchmen starts speaking without the conventional greetings. Also says alot of random things
Both Tannen ("Rapport Talk and Report Talk") and Maltz and Borker reject hypotheses that state differences between male and female communication is "psychological" or attributable to "human nature." Instead, how do they account for the differences between men and women?
cultural differences between men and women in their conceptions of friendly conversation, their rules for engaging in it, and, probably most important their rules for interpreting it. American men and women come from different sociolinguistic subcultures, having learned to do different things with words in ca conversation, so that when they attempt to carry on conversations with one another, even if both parties are attempting to treat one another as equals, cultural miscommunication results.
evaluated on how useful they are
~ may be historically/cross-culturally variable
~ example = Richard Bauman's "Five Principles"
Specific research study
~ can data be recreated by your own experiment?
~ are the claims supported by documented evidence?
~ question credibility of authors, etc..
culture is always changing, language creates social reality. Values, icuntity and power
moments that we don't understand...sometimes cultural
something you have that you become aware of when you encounter differences
-communication is socially constituted
-Expressive forms comment on society and culture
-social means lead to social ends
-forms of communication are differently valued
-styles of communication change in different cultures and time
Jane Goodman "Winking as Social Business"
Social Business not only refers to social intention, but also to social interpretation. Thus an action preformed once can mean different things to the same crowd. In order to become aware of how social actions differ to mean many things, reflexive awareness is key.
To bring attention to and reflect on events and interactions that one performs without thinking much at all
Example 1: Punching someone (followed by laughter)
Social Business (32):
The ends that are achieved in particular interactions with regards to values, identity, or power, that differ due to social interpretations
Example 2: talking fast
Fallacy of Normality (36)
The assumption that your own behaviors are so normal as to preclude any sort of analysis. Example: Miner's Body Ritual among the Nacirema. He just analysis the peoples actions nothing else.
the practice of looking at data from multiple perspectives.
three particular methods that you can gain reflexive awareness from
writing, cross cultural comparison, and triangulation.
Richard Bauman "The Emergent Quality Of Performance"
Chapter Summary The key to performing is being able to connect with the audience and effectively communicate with them. A successful performer will be be influential to the social structure and community of the audience.
Ilana Gershon - "And Then She Texted Me"
Illana Gershon sets out to show what work is accomplished when people retell conversations as break up stories and points out that breakups happen over a lot of different forms of communication (talking, texting, empaling, etc.) While people tell the story of the breakup, they change the story so that it made sense to the listener and explain why things happened.
entextualization is extracting discourse from its original context and then re-inserting it into a new context.
-An example of entextualization is when a conversation occurs and a part of that dialogue is written in text.
Removing the words from the context in which they were typed.
Providing a new context for the conversation
Deborah Tannen "Conversational Signals and Devices"
Conversational signals and devices play a key role in shaping a conversation and the impressions received by those participating.
Slight differences in conversation styles, tiny little things like microseconds of pause can have enormous impact on your life.
The use of pitch in conversations to stipulate the speakers emotions and perspective and too indicate whether the spoken dialogue is a statement or a question among other things. It's use typically comes in the forms of pausing, pacing, loudness and pitch changes. Synonymously known as "the music of talk".
a message that is given off indirectly from what a person says or how they say it
conversational style -
are basic tools of talk: the way we show what we mean when we say something
Daniel Maltz and Ruth Borker - "A Cultural Approach to Male-Female Miscommunication"
This chapter analyzes the underlying source of miscommunication between opposing genders by first defining the features of conversation for women and then for men. This discussion shows that women are 'more actively engaged in insuring interaction than the men' while men 'use more mechanisms for controlling the topic of conversation'. The authors further discuss the differences between play patterns of girls and boys, arguing that girls are more likely to encourage harmony in their interactions while boys' play shows a desire to assert one's dominance. Finally, the speech patterns of men and women are analyzed and compared, allowing the authors to draw five areas in which men and women possess different conversational rules, leading to miscommunication.
:the positive comments made throughout conversation in order to encourage the speaker forward - more commonly utilized by women than men.
:men seek to establish an organized dominance in conversation rather than the harmony that women seem to seek.
Roles in social interaction:
roles that individuals take in social interactions, such as the dominant speaker.
Deborah Tannen - "Put Down that Paper and Talk to Me!"
This chapter explores the reasons that women and men choose to communicate differently in different settings and with different audiences. Boys and girls grow up in essentially different cultures, so talk between women and men is cross-cultural communication (Page 188, 2nd paragraph). For most women, conversation is primarily a language of rapport: a way of establishing connections and negotiating relationships. Emphasis is placed on displaying similarities and matching experiences (Page 190, 2nd paragraph). For most men, talk is primarily a means to preserve independence and negotiate and maintain status in a hierarchical social order. This is done by exhibiting knowledge and skill, and by holding center stage through verbal performance such as story-telling, joking, or imparting information (Page 190, 3rd paragraph).
Rapport Talk :
seeks to establish a close and harmonious relationship in which those concerned understand each others feelings or emotions with those around you
conveying a specific message through speech, to give a report.
Graham Jones and Bambi Schieffelin - "Talking Text and Talking Back"
This chapter focuses on how the "texting generation" is affecting language and communication. Throughout the chapter, Jones and Schieffelin discuss the popular "My BFF Jill" AT&T commercials that aired in '07-'08 and how they were found so humorous because they incorporate verbal play and performance that many Americans actually experience. They also go on to discuss that talk texting may not be as awful as some people few it. They state that instead of viewing it as a "linguistic decline" it should be viewed as reflexive and evolutionary way to use language.
Computer Mediated Communication:
the deterioration of face-to-face sociality; cyber-bullying; compulsive behavior; and teens' use of coded messages to coordinate illicit activities such as sex and drug-use.
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