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Whole numbers and number properties
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Terms in this set (27)
brackets
A type of grouping symbol used in pairs that tells what operation to complete first. Also known as parentheses. ( )
multiplication
Repeated addition.
Example
4 × 7 means 4 added 7 times:
4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 28
division
Mathematical operation based on separating a quantity into equal parts.
addition
Mathematical operation that combines numbers or groups of objects; sum or total.
subtraction
Mathematical operation for taking a number or group away from another; the opposite process to addition.
sum
Result of adding; total.
difference
The result of subtraction.
quotient
The result of division.
product
The result of multiplication.
factors
A whole number that will divide into another number exactly.
Example
The factors of 12 are: 1 and 12, 2 and 6, 3 and 4
ascending
From smallest to largest.
descending
From largest to smallest.
multiples
The multiple of a number is the product of that number and any other whole number.
Example
The multiples of 6 are: 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48 ...
highest common factor
(HCF) the largest number that is a factor of all the given numbers
Example
What is the highest common factor of 24 and 30?
Factors of 24: 1 × 24, 2 × 12, 3 × 8, 4 × 6
Factors of 30: 1 × 30, 2 × 15, 3 × 10, 5 × 6
The common factors are 1, 2, 3 and 6.
The highest common factor is 6.
lowest common multiple
(LCM) the smallest number that two or more numbers divide into evenly
Example
What is the lowest common multiple of 3 and 4?
Multiples of 3: 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24 ...
Multiples of 4: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 ...
Common multiples of 3 and 4: 12, 24, 36 ...
The lowest common multiple of 3 and 4 is 12.
prime number
An integer greater than 1 that only has two factors, itself and 1.
Example
The first 10 prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29.
composite number
A number with at least three factors, ie factors other than itself and 1.
Example:
The first 10 composite numbers are 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18.
powers
Another name for index or exponent; a way to express a number multiplied by itself one or more times.
base number
The number that gets multiplied when using an exponent.
basic numeral
The numeral used to represent a number without using words.
Example
The basic numeral for two hundred and ten is 210.
index number
The index of a number says how many times to use the number in a multiplication.
Also called an exponent or power.
index form
Number or term expressed as a base and an index.
expanded form
An expression with no grouping symbols; a term shown without indices.
orders of operation
A set of rules used to find the value of a mathematical expression.
Calculate anything in grouping symbols first, next powers (and roots), and then divisions and multiplications, with subtractions and additions last.
square number
Result of multiplying a whole number by itself (squaring).
perfect square
A square of a whole number.
square roots
Name for symbol that indicates you should 'take the square root of' (ie the opposite operation of squaring).
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