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mountain system made up of parallel ranges


The solid layer of rock beneath the soil.

Continental Divide

a mountain ridge that separates river systems flowing toward opposite sides of a continent

drainage basin

the land drained by a river system


small river or stream that flows into a large river or stream; a branch of the river


permanently frozen ground.


a name for trees which lose their leaves every year


a large area of flat or rolling grassland

standard of living

a measure of quality of life based on the amounts and kinds of goods and services a person can buy


electricity produced by water

Cyrus McCormick

invented the mechanical reaper

fossil fuel

any fuel formed in the earth from the fossilized remains of prehistoric life; coal, oil, natural gas

Erie Canal

In 1825 linked the Great Lakes in Midwest with the Hudson River in New York

Samuel Morse

American Inventor of the telegraph and the morse code

Richard Sears

A railroad worker in rural Minnesota. A successful and creative figure in the mail-order business who began by selling jewelry

rugged individualism

idea that people should succeed through their own efforts. They should take care of themselves and their families, rather than depend on the government for bail out.

free enterprise

An economic system in which people are able to start and run their own businesses with little control by the government.

metropolitan area

a major population center made up of a large city and the smaller suburbs and towns that surround it

DeWitt Clinton

he led New Yorkers in digging the Erie Canal, linking the Great Lakes with the Hudson River.


organization by rank, class, or grade


A residential district located on the outskirts of a city


over-lapping region between the South and the West

Fall Line

Imaginary line between the Appalachain Mountains and the Atlantic Coastal Plains

Thomas Edison

Inventor of lightbulb in 1879, phonograph in 1877 and numerous other innovations


a marshy inlets of lakes and rivers of Louisiana.


a fluid necessary for the life of most animals and plants


One of the poorest areas in the US. A rural area

Eli Whitney

an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged (mass production).


a huge swampland that covers some 4,000 square miles


tropical trees that grow in swampy ground along coastal areas


the language of ancient rome

Andes Mountains

the world's longest mountain chain, located in western South America

Ring of Fire

a circle around the Pacific Ocean where the majority of Earth's volcanoes and mega-thrust earthquakes are

Amazon Basin

the home of the world's largest tropical rainforests, runs along the Amazon river


the grassy plains in South America stretching from Argentina to Uraguay .

Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America. At the mouth of Rio de la Plata.


Ore from which aluminum is made.


people of mixed european and native american ancestry


belief in more than one god


...These were built to worship by many gods


gift,statement,or money given to show respect or thanks such as tobacco, gold, precious stones, and jaguar skins.


Warrior god of the Aztec people who they believed brought maize to the Earth.


floating farming islands made by the Aztec


Capital city of the Incas


a Spanish conqueror.

Hernando Cortes

Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztec Empire


Aztec Emperor

Francisco Pizarro

the Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca Empire


Inca emperor.


the language of the inca

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