53 terms

Lab Practical 2 - Chapter 8

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Which phylum do the flatworms belong to?
platyhelminthes
During embryonic development in flatworms, the _____ differentiates into _____.
mesoderm, muscles
_____ cells function primarily in fluid balance in the body, with excretion being a secondary role.
flame
Two longitudinal nerve cords connected by a series of transverse nerves
ladder-like nervous system
Free-living species typically possess a concentration of nervous tissue and sensory structures at the anterior end of the body. This condition is known as ________.
cephalization
Class of Platyhelminthes: free-living flatworms with a ventral mouth. ex: planarians
turbellaria
Class of Platyhelminthes: internal parasites with leaf-shaped body and anterior mouth. ex: flukes
trematoda
Class of Platyhelminthes: internal parasites with long, ribbon-like body composed of proglottids and no mouth.
cestoda
Triploblastic body plan: animals whose central space is filled with tissue [mesoderm]. no true body cavity exists. ex: flatworms.
acoelomate
Triploblastic body plan: animals with a central body cavity that lies between the gastrodermis and the mesoderm. ex: roundworms
psuedocoelomate
Triploblastic body plan: animals with a central body cavity that lies within the mesoderm. ex: earthworms, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms, chordates.
eucoelomate
The ______ of a planaria sense light (shadows and direct light, not images) and the ______ are chemoreceptors that detect dissolved chemicals in the water.
eyespots, auricles
Primary function of flame cells? Secondary?
osmoregulation, excretion
Flukes use _____ for attachment to the hosts inner body wall or organs.
suckers
Flukes are protected by a thin _____ that prevents the digestive enzymes of the host from from dissolved them.
cuticle
Flukes are monoecious and are capable of self-fertilization-- a criteria needed for the solitary lifestyle of an ________.
endoparasite
The digestive system of _____ (Class ______) includes the mouth, muscular pharynx, a short esophagus, and two branches of the gastrovascular cavity.
flukes, trematoda
What kind of larvae do flukes have?
free-living miracidia
What is the liver flukes two intermediate hosts?
snail, fish
What does the miracidia larvae produce inside the snail?
cercaria larvae
Fluke structure: specialized for attachment to host; used in feeding.
oral sucker
Fluke structure: secondary point of attachment to host.
ventral sucker
Fluke structure: muscular tube for pumping in blood and body fluids from host.
pharynx
Fluke structure: forked tube for digestion and distribution of nutrients throughout body (reduced in flukes)
gastrovascular cavity
Fluke structure: stores sperm and transports sperm to genital pore.
vas deferens
Fluke structure: receives sperm and moves it to the seminal receptacle.
genital pore
Fluke structure: receives sperm and stores it (often for the life of the fluke) eventually moving it to the uterus where eggs are fertilized.
seminal receptacle
Fluke structure: eggs are combined with yolk and shelled before passing to the uterus.
yolk gland and yolk duct
Fluke structure: collect metabolic waste from the flame cells.
excretory canals and bladder
Fluke structure: releases metabolic waste products out of body
excretory pore
What infects a human with a liver fluke?
encysted metacercaria
Mircadia pass through several stages: _____ then _____ then ____ dividing asexually to produce thousands of additional larvae.
sporocyte, redia, cercaria
Tapeworms (Phylum ____) have a thin tough coating on their body known as a ______ which prevents them from being digested.
cestoda, cuticle
Tapeworms have a series of continuously growing segments called _______.
proglottids
Where do new segments on a tapeworm form?
behind the scolex
What is the scolex consisted of on a tapeworm?
hooks, suckers
Where is the scolex located on a species of Phylum Cestoda?
anterior
T/F: Tapeworm suckers are used for feeding.
F; used for attachment.
T/F: Each proglottid in tapeworms contains its own reproductive unit.
T
What are proglottids in tapeworms connected by?
excretory canals and longitudinal nerves
Tapeworm structure: anterior end of tapeworm; lacks sensory structures but possesses modifications for attachment to intestinal wall of host.
scolex
Tapeworm structure: modified structures of scolex for attachment to host.
hooks and suckers
Tapeworm structure: constricted portion of signifying posterior end of scolex; marks the site of origin of immature proglottids.
neck
Tapeworm structure: newly produced segment of the tapeworm that has undeveloped reproductive organs.
immature proglottid
Tapeworm structure: longitudinal channels running along the outer margins of the body that deliver metabolic waste products out of the tapeworm.
excretory canals
Tapeworm structure: tapeworm segment that has functional reproductive organs.
mature proglottid
Tapeworm structure: eggs are combined with yolk and shelled before passing to the uterus.
yolk gland and yolk duct
Tapeworm structure: shelled, fertilized eggs are stored here until proglottid drops off of tapeworm body.
uterus
Tapeworm structure: canal through which sperm pass as they exit the proglottid through the genital pore.
vas deferens
Tapeworm structure: external opening common to the male and female reproductive tracts of the tapeworm; sperm exit and enter proglottids through this opening.
genital pore
Tapeworm structure: tapeworm segment containing ripe fertilized eggs; this segment is ready to drop off the tapeworm body and be eliminated from the host in feces.
gravid proglottid
T/F: Phylum Platyhelminthes' simple nervous system isn't capable of integrating multiple stimuli nor able to draw associations between them.
F; they can be conditioned.
Where must the cercaria travel too in order to make it to humans, their primary host?
their second intermediate host (ex: sheep, fish)
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