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Chemistry: The Central Science Chapter 10
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Gravity
Terms in this set (59)
Gas physical properties
- Expands spontaneously to fill container
- Form homogeneous mixtures with each other
Pressure
Force per unit area
P = F/A
Newton (N)
SI unit for force
1 N = 1 kg-m/s^2
Pascal (Pa)
SI unit for pressure
1 Pa = 1 N/m^2 = 1 kg/m-s^2
Force (F)
Force = mass*acceleration
F=ma
Standard atmospheric pressure
Pressure sufficient to support a column of mercury 760 mm high (typical pressure at sea level)
How a barometer works
When the mercury-filled tube is inverted, some of the mercury flows out, but a column of mercury remains inside; this is due to the weight of Earth's atmosphere pushing on the mercury in the dish.
For atmospheric pressure
How a manometer works
Pgas = Patm + Ph
Pressure of the gas = atmospheric pressure + difference of height in two arms
For pressure of enclosed gases
Boyle's law
For a constant quantity of gas at constant temperature, the THE VOLUME OF GAS IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO THE PRESSURE
PV = constant
Charles's law
For a fixed quantity of gas at constant pressure, THE VOLUME IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO ITS ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE
V/T = constant
Avogadro's law
For a gas at constant temperature and pressure, THE VOLUME OF GAS IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE NUMBER OF MOLES OF GAS
V = constant*n
Ideal-gas equation
PV=nRT
R is the gas constant (ex 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K)
P is pressure
V is volume
T is temperature
n is the number of moles
Ideal gas
A hypothetical gas whose pressure, volume, and temperature behavior are described completely by the ideal-gas equation
Combined gas law
(P1V1)/T1 = (P2V2)/T2
Density related to molar mass
d = PM/RT
P is pressure
M is molar mass
R is a constant
T is temperature
Dalton's law of partial pressures
The total mixture of gases equals the sum of the pressures that each would exert if it were present alone.
Partial pressure equation
P1 = (n1/nt)Pt
n1 is the moles in the gas you're looking at, nt is the total number of moles, (n1/nt) is the mole fraction
Pt is the total pressure
Mole fraction
Ratio of moles of one component of a mixture to the total moles of all components
Kinetic-molecular theory
- Molecules are in continuous chaotic movement.
- The volume of gas molecules is negligible compared to the volume of their container.
- The gas molecules have no attractive forces for one another.
- The collisions of gas molecules are elastic. (as in they just bounce off)
- The average kinetic energy of the gas molecules is proportional to the absolute temperature.
Root-mean-square (rms) speed (u)
Relating rms speed of gas molecules to temperature and molar mass
Effusion
When a gas escapes through a tiny hole into a vacuum
Diffusion
Spread of one substance throughout a space or throughout a second substance
Graham's law
Relates relative rates of effusion of two gases to their molar masses
Mean free path
Average distance traveled by a molecule between collisions
Conditions for departure from ideal behavior
Departures from ideal behavior increase as:
- Pressure increases
- Temperature decreases
Why gases don't behave ideally
Because the molecules possess finite volume and because the molecules experience attractive forces for one another
van der Waals equation
Basically the ideal gas equation, but with two constants added to account for deviation from ideal gas behavior.
a is a measure of how strongly gas molecules attract each other.
b is a measure of the small but finite volume occupied by gas molecules themselves.
Boyle's Law
V = constant × 1/P
PV = constant
(section 10.3)
Charles's Law
V = constant × T
V / T = constant
(section 10.3)
Avogadro's hypothesis
idea that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules
(section 10.3)
Avogadro's Law
volume of a gas mainained at constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas
V = constant × n
V (volume; L)
n (number moles)
(section 10.3)
ideal-gas law
PV = nRT
P (pressure; atm)
V (volume; L)
n (number moles)
R (gas constant, 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K)
(section 10.4)
gas constant
R = 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K
(section 10.4)
standard temperature and pressure
(STP)
conditions of
T = 0 ⁰C = 273 K
P = 1 atm
(section 10.4)
molar volume of ideal gas at STP
22.41 L
(section 10.4)
combined gas law
P₁V₁ / T₁ = P₂V₂ / T₂
(section 10.4)
density of gas
d = nM / V = PM / RT
d (density)
n (number moles)
M (molar mass; g/mol)
V (volume; L)
P (pressure; atm)
R (gas constant; 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K)
(section 10.5)
partial pressure
(section 10.6)
Dalton's law of partial pressures
P(tot) = n(tot)×(RT / V)
(section 10.6)
mole fraction
(section 10.6)
kinetic-molecular theory of gasses
(section 10.7)
root-mean-square speed
(rms)
u(rms) = (3RT/M)⁻²
effusion
(section 10.8)
diffusion
(section 10.8)
Graham's Law
(section 10.8)
pressure
P = F / A
Boyle's Law
V = constant × 1/P
PV = constant
Charles's Law
V = constant × T
V / T = constant
Avogadro's hypothesis
idea that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules
Avogadro's Law
volume of a gas mainained at constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas
V = constant × n
V (volume; L)
n (number moles)
ideal-gas law
PV = nRT
P (pressure; atm)
V (volume; L)
n (number moles)
R (gas constant, 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K)
gas constant
R = 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K
standard temperature and pressure
(STP)
conditions of
T = 0 ⁰C = 273 K
P = 1 atm
Dalton's law of partial pressures
P(tot) = n(tot)×(RT / V)
mole fraction
the ratio of the moles of one component of a mixture to the total moles
of all components
kinetic-molecular theory of gasses
accounts for the properties of an ideal gas in terms of a set of statements about the nature of gases
root-mean-square speed
(rms)
u(rms) = (3RT/M)⁻²
varies in proportion to the square root of the absolute temperature and inversely with the square root of the molar mass
effusion
escapes through a tiny hole
Graham's Law
The rate at which a gas undergoes effusion (escapes through a tiny hole) is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass
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