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Health Beyond Borders
Terms in this set (40)
a state of complete mental, social, and physical wellbeing and not merely the absence of infirmity or disease
the application of principles of public health to problems and challenges that effect low and middle income countries and to the complex array of global and local forces that influence them
refers to all organized measures (whether public or private) to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life amongst the population as a whole
the scientific study of human populations primarily with respect to their size, structure, and development
The historical shift of birth and death rates from high to low levels in a population. The decline of mortality usually precedes the decline in fertility, thus resulting in rapid population growth during the transition period
double burden of disease
A situation in many developing countries, which have not yet fully controlled communicable diseases, and yet are faced with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases
the study of the patterns, causes and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations
The transition from a situation where mortality is mainly due to communicable, nutritional and maternal conditions ('the age of pestilence and famine'), which are gradually controlled, especially for young ages ('the age of receding pandemics') and then transits into a situation where non- communicable diseases are the main cause of mortality ('the age of degenerative and man-made diseases')
The fourth stage of the epidemiologic transition: increasing life expectancy/disability and re-emergence of CDs.
disability-adjusted life years -loss of healthy life years: -
sum of life years lost to premature mortality (YLL) and life years lost to 'disability' (YLD)
a type of immunity which occurs when a significant portion of the population has become immune (either through vaccination, previous illness or congenitally) and thereby provide some protection for those who are not immune.
the number of secondary cases generated by an infected index case, in the absence and presence of control measures, i.e., the basic (Ro) and effective (R) reproduction number.
Number of new cases of a disease during a specified period of time, divided by the population at risk during that time period
Number of existing cases of disease at a given point of time divided by the population at risk.
the proportion of reported cases of a specified disease or condition which are fatal (within a specified time).
are those of couples and individuals to freely decide the timing, number and spacing of their children, and to access information and care in all matters related to reproduction and sexuality.
is the complete physical, mental and social well being related to the reproductive system throughout the life cycle.
is a state of physical, mental and social well being in relation to sexuality throughout the life cycle.
includes the right to not be subjected to sexual violence and coercion, as well as to a safe and satisfying sex life - including the right to say 'no' to sex.
maternal mortality ratio
A maternal death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.
Maternal mortality ratio is an expression of the risk associated with each pregnancy, and is expressed as the number of maternal deaths per 100 000 live births (for a specified time). It was first defined in ICD10
International classification of disease
Standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes. It is hosted by WHO, and successive versions are endorsed by the World Health Assembly. The present version is the 11th revision (ICD11) which was endorsed in 2018.
the percentage of women who are currently using, or whose sexual partner is currently using, at least one method of contraception, regardless of the method used.
unmet need for family planning
The proportion of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who are married or in union...who do not want any more children or want to wait at least two years before having a baby, and yet are not using contraception
Usually expressed as a percentage
Usually refers to women who are fecund and sexually active
all organizations, people and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health
health system framework
goals: improved health, responsiveness, social and financial risk protection, and improved efficiency
health system: 6 building blocks
service delivery, health workforce, information, medical products vaccines and tech, financing, leadership/governance
socio-cultural aspects of health and illness, health care, health policy & health interventions
To research and understand social phenomenon within the standards and context of the local culture
People's beliefs and practices are rational and meaningful from their own point of view - also within the area of illness and health
To understand what are the standards of a particular local culture, anthropologists aim to gain an insider understanding
a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources
these are states, or situations, where the government either cannot or will not provide basic services for their population, such as space to pursue livelihood, security, social and health services
Risk Level = Probability of occurrence x magnitude of impact.
International Health Regulations (IHR)
an international legal framework (convention), which helps countries work together to save lives and protect livelihoods affected by an international spread of diseases and other health risks.
•entered into force on 15 June 2007 and is binding upon all WHO Member States (regardless of in country ratification).
when should something be reported to IHR?
Is the public health impact serious?
is the event unusual or unexpected?
is there a risk of international spread?
is there a risk of travel/trade restrictions?
DEMOGRAPHIC: usually refers to proportion of 'older persons' - e.g. over 60. No agreed definition or UN standard. Often the focus in HICs is retirement age. (Social construct)
INDIVIDUAL: a progressive, generalized impairment of function, resulting in a loss of adaptive response to a stress and in growing risk of age-associated disease
compression of morbidity
although populations age, the amount of time they are ill does not expand - last 6 months
expansion of morbidity
amount of time they are ill expands
life course approach
an approach to health which notes that health is a consequence of a wide range of factors, social economic, health care etc, which are accumulated from gestation, through childhood, adolescence etc and which affect the risk of chronic disease and health outcomes in late.
So the response should be tailored to each stage
an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life- threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychosocial and spiritual.
3 pillars of active aging
participation, health, security
Global Health Governance
which refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate
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