Color: Yellow orange or green Consistency: Runny to curdy Frequency: With each feeding - 1x each 3-4 days
What is the normal color, consistency, and frequency of stool for breast-fed babies?
Color: Brownish Consistency: Loosely formed to solid Frequency: 3x per day - 1 every 3-5 days
What is the normal color, consistency, and ffrequency of stool for formula fed babies?
The annual international incidence of diarrheal illness is....
1. Dry mouth 2. Fewer than half the usual number of diapers 3. No urine output in 12 days 4. No tears 5. Dizziness 6. Weakness 7. Headache 8. Muscle cramps 9. Sunken eyes and fontanelles 10. Skin tenting
Eliminate irritating foods, sit upright for 20 minutes after feeding, burp often, spinal adjustments, and diaphragm releases.
What are the treatments for regurgitation?
1. Decreased LES pressure 2. Decreased gastric emptying 3. Hiatal hernia 4. Inappropriate LES relaxation 5. Development predispositions (short esophagus)
What is the etiology of GERD?
Cough, vomiting, regurgitation, irritability with feeding.
Unusual symptoms include mouthing, discomfort in supine positions, gagging.
Severe Symptoms: Wheezing, aspiration pneumonia, failure to thrive, esophageal bleeding, anemia
What are the symptoms of GERD?
Antacids, Spinal adjustments, hiatal hernia release, avoid peppermint/chocolate/caffeine/alcohol, elevate head of bed, hypoallergenic diet.
How do we treat GERD?
Weight loss, vomiting progresses to projectile, palpation of olive shaped lump RUQ/right of umbilicus.
Marked peristalsis from LUQ to epigastrum.
What are the symptoms of pyloric stenosis?
What is the treatment of pyloric stenosis?
Telescoping bowel (usually just proximal to ileocecal valve).
Males more common. typical at 6-18 months (MC bowel obstruction under 3yo). Signs/symptoms include colicky type pain, child draws knees up, may vomit, current jelly stools, palpable sausage shaped mass.
What is intussusception?
Enema is diagnostic and therapeutic.
Fatal if not treated.
How do we treat intussusception?
Aspirin or URI trigger it.
Signs/symptoms: Intractable vomiting after URI, confused, combative, agitative, comatose, dilated pupils, kussmaul's respirations, no fever.
If under 2 yoa, diarrhea and rapid respiration.
Reyes syndrome is triggered by... What are the symptoms?
Hospitalization, fluids, steroids.
brain damage. 20% mortality within 2-3 days.
How do we treat Reyes syndrome? What are the complications?
GI and lymph cancers, osteoporosis, neurological symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, myopathy, seizures, optic myopathy, dementia
What are the complications of Celiacs disease?
Crying for 3+ hours per day, for 3+ days per week, for 3+ consecutive weeks.
What is the standard definition of colic?
Unknown. Thought to be gastrointestinal in origin.
What is the etiology of colic?
Crying paroxysms, facial grimace, flenched fists, knees/hips flexed, distended abdomen, and poor response to soothing intervention.
What are the signs/symptoms of colic?
Chiropractic adjustments are >90% effective in reducing or eliminating crying behavior.
Primary: A child older than 5 who has never been consistently dry for 6 months or longer. Secondary: A child who reverts to uncontrolled urinary discharge after previously establishing urinary control for 6 months or more.
Compare and contrast primary vs secondary nocturnal enuresis.
True. Which is why a full bladder doesn't wake them.
T/F: Children with enuresis are typically deep sleepers.
Lack of antidiuretic pituitary hormone, vasopressin.