52 terms

Memory (Chapter 7)

(psychology) the configuration of smaller units of information into large coordinated units
constructive process
organizing and shaping of information during processing, storage, and retrieval of memories
elaborative rehearsal
a memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory
the processing of information into the memory system (keyboard)
encoding specificity principle
The idea that the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code.
context, state dependance, and mood congruence.
episodic memory
memory of personal experiences
explicit (declarative) memory
Long-term memory for factual knowledge and personal experiences. This type of memory requires a conscious effort to remember and entails making declarations about the information remembered.
levels of processing
the concept that the more deeply people encode information, the better they will recall it.
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
maintenance rehearsal
A system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
the area of cognitive psychology that studies memory processes
parallel distributed processing (PDP)
a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
remembering something that happened earlier, like short answer questions on a test
The process of getting information out of memory storage. (monitor)
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
retrieval cue
a clue, prompt, or hint that helps trigger recall of a given piece of information stored in long-term memory
semantic memory
your memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. There are two types echoic and iconic.
short-term memory
memory that is limited in capacity to about seven items in a duration
the retention of encoded information over time (computer)
distributed practice
spacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods
massed practice
learning in one long practice session without rest periods
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
retroactive interference
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
sleeper effect
A psychological phenomenon whereby a highly persuasive message, paired with a discounting cue, causes an individual to be more persuaded by the message (rather than less persuaded) over time.
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Feeling that specific information is stored in long-term memory but of being temporarily unable to retrieve it
Alzheimer's disease (AD)
progression mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss
anterograde amnesia
Inability to store new memories after a traumatic event
long-term potentiation
enhanced response at synapes within the hippocampus
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events immediately preceding a trauma
mnemonic device
a memory aid, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something
information processing model
a model of memory in which information must pass through discrete stages via the processes of attention, encoding, storage, and retrieval
Three stage model
model of memory that posits three distinct stages of memory: sensory, short-term, and long-term
central executive
Model of working memory where, the component that integrates information from the phonological loop and the visuospatial working memory, as well as material retrieved from long-term memory. This also plays a major role in planning and controlling behavior.
implicit (nondeclarative) memory
Long-term memory for procedural motor and cognitive tasks and conditioning effects. This type of memory does not require conscious awareness or the need to make declarations about the information remembered.
decay theory
The idea that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time.
interference theory
Belief that forgetting occurs because other items get in the way of the information a person wants to remember.
motivated forgetting theory
A theory of forgetting that states that a strong desire to forget, usually because the memory is too disturbing or upsetting to remember
encoding failure theory
A theory of forgetting that proposes that forgetting is due to the failure to encode the information into long-term memory.
retrieval failure theory
Proposes that forgetting occurs because we lack or fail to use the right cues to retrieve information stored in memory. The information is not lost forever: it simply cannot be retrieved at that moment. Also called cue dependant forgetting
recency effect
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence.
primacy effect
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.
flashbulb memories
detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event that is vivid and remembered with confidence
a system of reasoning
a harmonious uniformity or agreement among things or parts
tips for memory imrovement
1) Pay attention and reduce interference
2) Use rehearsal techniques
3) Use the encoding specificity principle
4) Improve your organization
5)Counteract serial position effect
6)Manage your time
7)Employ self monitoring and overlearning
8)Use mnemonic devices
The world memory champion uses a device called loci. He associates each card with a character and places each character in a location
peg words
Use the same picture method as link words, but create a picture in your mid that links the first word with the peg word.