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Comparative Psychology Exam 3
Terms in this set (77)
4 Types of Associative/Cognitive Learning
1. Classical Conditioning
2. Instrumental Conditionaing
3. Rule Learning
4. Social Learning
with this kind of associative/cognitive learning., you can predict what will happen in the future - it is a mechanism for predicting impending events without any control of the environment
In the Japanese video, the people display a reflexive response to this, exemplifying human classical conditioning
Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning
what you do to make a behavior increase or decrease - it is a mechanism for producing outcomes
Learning does NOT always =
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
Instrumental conditioning involves providing a positive stimulus for desired behavior and removing an aversive stimulus to encourage desired behavior (i.e. when your car stops making the obnoxious beeping noise once you put on your seat belt), aka:
when a subject links certain events, behaviors, or stimuli together in the process of conditioning (i.e. linking bell to appearance of food, salivating as a result)
the stage of classical conditioning when the association is made (i.e. when the dog begins to salivate from just the bell alone after having repeated exposure to both the food and the bell)
our tendency to consider only the evidence that confirms our beliefs, evident in the Clever Hans scenario,
where superstition comes from
rather than working on confirmation, science works on the idea that a theory is scientific if it can be falsified by data
of two theories with a similar explanatory power, the one making the fewest assumptions is chosen
the ability to rule out alternative explanations for a given phenomenon
Willhelm von Osten
the man who trained Clever Hans
whether or not von Osten knew the answer and was in sight (confirmation bias in effect)
what did they find to determine whether or not Clever Hans got the question correct?
this chimp learned sign language but was actually given inadvertent cues
Clever Hans effect
research involving human-animal interactions is open to this
1. can a machine do the recording?
2. can the observer be blind to the goals and conditions of the experiment?
3. can we estimate the reliability of observers? (coding videos and comparing)
3 questions to ask in order to avoid the Clever Hans effect
mental illness and compulsions in animals (chasing shadow, pacing, swaying)
Laurel Braitman discussed this in her ted talk and used her dog as an example
the phenomenon that we have to talk about our feelings in order to understand is relatively ________________
mental disorders in animals has a more complicated source than simply ______________________
Braitman argues this is the best thing we can do for our animals, accepting similarities between species, exhibited in giving animals Psychopharmaceutical drugs, time with other animals
this spikes when humans and animals are bonding with friends because we are social creatures
these are manifestations of a healthy animal
Issue #1. learning
this issue in the comparative analyses of learning and cognition is one of distinguishing learning ________________ from learning ____________________
of learning mechanisms
this issue in the comparative analyses of learning and cognition is demonstrated when equivalent phenomena are shown to depend on the same processes at all levels of analysis
in learning mechanisms
this issue in the comparative analyses of learning and cognition is demonstrated when species differences in learning phenomena cannot be attributed to contextual variables
1. Psychological (i.e. S-->S)
2. Neurobiological (i.e. coincidence detectors, circuity underneath, neurons converging on the same area)
3. Neurochemical (i.e. synaptic plasticity)
4. Cell-molecular (second messenger systems like Cyclic AMP)
the four mechanistic levels that must match in order to determine homology (from most specific to least specific)
this is exemplified in the gap between the 2 groups of conditions within Pavlov's experiment - why one group of dogs is salivating more than another: the group where the bell and food was paired- requiring the dog to have a memory of the association between the bell and the food --
doesn't occur in nature, only created in the lab
& the Aplysia Gill-Withdrawal Reflex
this occurs in nature and evolves over time, providing an explanation for behavior
lesioning (and simulating the act of lesioning/sham) the amygdala in rats proved its importance in this task
Floor of boxes has a wire grid to send shock. Give them a signal to get shocked- have opportunity to jump to other side to avoid the shock. Amygdala involved in this fear response
how is the avoidance learning experiment executed for rats?
put electrical current in water, learn to avoid the shock over time because of the fear response; homologous area
how is the avoidance learning experiment executed for goldfish? Lesioning this area inhibits the goldfish's ability to avoid.
Their most common ancestor lived over 600 Million Years Ago and rats need an amygdala, which is not present in honeybees
How can we be sure that the explanation for the learning phenomena found overlapping in rats and honeybees is due to homoplasy rather than homology?
identical neurons and similar behavior
what commonalities do we see between the learning mechanisms of rats and honeybees?
- Sensory/Perception Detection
- Motor Control
- Memory Retrieval
4 Contextual Variables that contribute to acquired behavior
Learning factors that contribute to acquired behavior
1. Ecological View
2. General Process View
2 Views of Divergence
Ecological View of Divergence
learning mechanisms solve specific ecological problems - species vary in ecology, and there are many different adaptations to meet various unique challenges
General Process View of Divergence
learning mechanisms deal with common dimensions, solving same kinds of problems although they look different - all ecological niches involve causality, space, and time
he put cats in a cage and looked at how many seconds it took for the cats to escape to get food
How did Thorndyke study Classic Learning Theory?
Incentive (i.e. food)
In classic conditioning like Thorndyke's cat experiment, this strengthens the relationship between the stimulus and response
T/F: According to Thorndyke, the cat needs to know about the incentive of food in order for the stimulus-> response relationship to be strengthened by it
enzyme (enzymatic view)
incentive works in a way similar to this, strengthening without playing a role
when expectations are involved and violated in a negative way, there are consequences (replacing the banana with lettuce behind the monkey's back --> anger and unwanted food)
What problem is displayed in the monkey + banana + lettuce experiment that challenges Thorndyke's ideas on classical conditioning?
Give rats sunflower seeds or bran mash.
Make less errors when solving maze for brain mash.
Switch bran mash for sunflower seeds.
bran mash and finds seeds instead
= More errors.
[SNC is the gap between the errors made by the rats who experienced a switch and the rats who did not.]
Explain successive negative contrast (SNC or surprising non reward) in terms of the rat study discussed in class
the total or partial omission of an appetitive reinforcer in a situation previously paired with that reinforcer - cues predict a larger or more preferred reward than that actually occurring
1. Allocentric 2. Egocentric
2 Types of learning that Surprising Nonreward promotes
associative learning mechanisms that track changes in the environment around you (cognitive)
associative learning mechanisms that acquire information about the organism's
to changes in the environment
Mammals (i.e. rats)
in phylogenetic comparisons, this group is set apart with its ability for egocentric learning, successive negative contrast (snc), partial reinforcement extinction effect (pree), and magnitude of reinforcement extinction effect (mree)
differences in behavior between large and small groups show that SNC is not this type of issue.. they CAN tell the difference
this animal takes longer to complete the task for a smaller award
what will lead to a stronger association without any emotional component, explaining how pigeons can learn...
Successive Negative Contrast (SNC)
Behavioral disruption that follows a downward shift in the magnitude or quality of an appetitive reinforcer. The performance measure can be either instrumental (speed of running on a runway) or consummatory (amount of solution drunk during a session)
Allocentric Learning (S-W learning mechanism)
Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Aves, and Reptilia display this type of learning and SNC
Egocentric Learning (SNC)
Mammals display this type of learning and SNC
a cognitive form of learning - initial learning based on associative knowledge (from instrumental conditioning) may eventually lead to a cognitive resolution based on rules (rule development)
New Caledonian Crows
Uses a stick or a bent object already in the environment to reach in and pull it out to get the food
also known as imitation, this is a type of learning that may be associative in some aspects but results from observing a response and copying motor act observed
- explains a dog's ability to understand verbal commands and a parrot's ability to answer questions (instrumental conditioning)
what behavior do the quails display as a result of social learning?
Kanzi the bonobo
this creature spontaneously learned to understand English and how to function a computer
Susan Savage argues that her ability to share tools, technology, and language with Kanzi, a member of another species, is more this than biology...
self-recognition ability, whether the animal will reach for the dot on themselves (signifying self-recognition) or on the mirror
what was the mirror test testing?
what sort of social behavior do monkeys use to bond?
communication with semantic content
vervet monkeys signaling the presence of aerial and terrestrial predators with distinctive calls and others reacting to either climb up or down a tree is an example of this
group hunting of monkeys
what sort of social interactions do chimps engage in while solving problems?
poor control of sound modulation
one reason chimps cannot speak
communication through gestures
despite their inability to actually do sign language, chimps have demonstrated this impressive skill of using hand movements
language or communication development
what is a large brain good for?
according to Dunbar, the roots of human language evolved from this
Dunbar's Theory of Language Evolution
1. There is a positive correlation between average group size and neocortex ratio
2. There is a positive correlation between grooming time and average group size
= language evolved from grooming
according to Dunbar's findings, what is the typical group size fro humans based on the neocortex ratio
what percentage of time should humans spend grooming according to Dunbar's theory?
according to Dunbar's theory, this social bonding strategy evolved as a solution to the inefficiency of spending so much time grooming
Rift Valley in Africa
where was Lucy, a skeleton that resembles both a bonobo and human, found?
partial reinforcement extinction effect (pree)
greater persistence in extinction after training with partial, rather than continuous reinforcement
magnitude of reinforcement extinction effect (mree)
greater persistence in extinction after training with small, rather than large, incentives
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