APUSH Chapter 17 IDs
Terms in this set (37)
A process for converting iron into the much more durable and versatile steel; process consisted of blowing air through molten iron to burn out the impurities. This made possible the production of steel in great qunatities and large dimensions, for use in manufacture of locomotives, steel rails, and girders for the construction of tall buildings.
In 1906, he produced the 1st of the famous cars that would bear his name; major force in economy by 1910; improved assembly line method
Wilbur and Orville Wright
Owned a bicycle shop in which they began to construct a glider that could be propelled through the air by an internal-combustion engine (like in cars). 4yrs later, they celebrated test flight near Kitty Hawk, NC: took off by itself &traveled 120ft in 12secs under its own power. By 1904, improved plane to fly over 23 miles; next year, few passengers on flights
New principles of "scientific management" after leading theoretician Freerick Winslow Taylor. he urged employers to reorganize prodcution process by subdividing tasks; speeds up production &makes workers more interchangeable which diminished a manager's dependence on any particular employee. Reduced need for highly trained skilled workers & increased productive efficiency. This=way to manange human labor to make it compatible w/demands of machine age but also increase employer's work control &working people less dependent
Moving Assembly Line
Most important change in production tech in industrial era; Henry Ford introduced this in his car plants in 1914. Cut the time for assembly. Enabled Ford to raise the wages &reduce hours of workers while cutting the base price of Model T from $950 in 1914 to $290 in 1929; became standard for many other industries
Emerged when RR magnates &other industrialists realized that no single person or group of limited partners, no matter how wealthy, could finance their great ventures.
Investors risked only the amount of their investments; they were not liable for any debts the corporation might accumulate beyond that
Central figure in the steel industry; Scottish immigrant who worked way up from modest beginnings &in 1873 opened his own steelworks in Pittsburgh. Cut costs &prices by striking deals w/RRs &bought out rivals who couldn't compete w/him. Bought coal mines &leased part of Mesabi iron range in MN, operated fleet of ore ships on Great Lakes, &had RRs; controlled steel from mine-market. Created giant US Steel Co w/others; controlled almost 2/3 of steel production in US
Horizontal and Vertical Integration
Horizontal-the combining of a number of firms engaged in the same enterprise into a single corporation; like a merger
Vertical-taking over of all the different businesses on which a company relied for its primary function
John D. Rockefeller
Owned Standard Oil, created thru horizontal &vertical integration. Launched it in Cleveland &started eliminating comp immediately; allyed himself w/other wealthy capitalists. 1870 formed the Standard Oil Co of OH; owned 20/25 refinieries in Cleveland, Baltimore , Philly, Pitts, NY (horizontal) Vertical-owned own barrel factories, terminal warehouses & pipelines, freight cars &marketing org. Est such dominance= leading symbol of monopoly
Pioneered by Standard Oil and perfected by J.P.Morgan. Became a term for any great economic combination, a particular kind of organization. In trust agreement, stockholder in individual cos transferred their stocks to a small group of trustees in exchange for shares in the trust itself
A central coporate body that would buy up the stock of various members of the Standard Oil trust and establish direct, formal ownerships of the cos in the trust.
Known as the "Commodore," accumulated one of America's great fortunes by consolidating seceral large RR companies under his control in 1860s; had excessive corporate power. Battled Jay Gould &Jim Fisk for control of Erie RR, known as "Erie War" in 1868
Applicatoin of CHarles Darwin's laws of evolution &natural selection among species to human society. Like only the fittest survived in the process of evolution, so in human society only the fittest individuals sruvived &flourished in the marketplace
Adam Smith and Classical Economics
Wrote "The Wealth of Nations" which explained the free enterprise system; pure capitalism with no regulations
The Gospel of Wealth
A book Andrew Carnegie wrote in 1901 that said teh wealthy should consider all revenues in excess of their own needs as "trust fund" to be used for the good of the community; the person of wealth, he said, was "the mere trustee &agent for his poorer brethren."
Orginially a minister in a small town in MA but driven from his pulpit as a result of a sexual scandal; moved to NY &wrote >100 novels &>200 mil copies ("Andy Grant's Pluck" "Ragged Dick", "Sink or Swim." Stories &messages the same: poor boy from small town goes to big city to seek fortune &aquires it by work
Lester Frank Ward
Was a Darwinist but rejected the application of Darwinian laws to human society. Argued that civiization was not governed by natural selection but by human intelligence, which was capable of shaping society as it wished. Thought that an active gov engaged in positive planning was society's best hope; the people, thru thier gov, could intervene in economy &adjust it to serve their needs
Tried to explain why poverty existed amidst the wealth created by modern industry in "Progress &Poverty". Blamed social probelms on the ability of a few monopolists to grow welathy as a result of rising land values; increase value of land=growth of society around land. Proposed "single tax" to replace all other taxes, destroying monolpolies, distribute $more=, & eliminate poverty.
Wrote utopian novel "Looking Backward" which described the esperiences of a young Bostonian who went into a hypnotic sleep in 1887 &awoke in 2000 to find a new social order where want, politics, &vice were unkown. Large trusts in late 19th century cont to grow in size &merge until formed a single great trust, controlled by the gove, which absorbe all the businesses of all citizens &distributed the abuncdance of industrial economy =among all people. Called this nationalism
Control of the market by larege corporate combinations; blamed fro artificially high prices &producing a highly unstable economy, seemed to threaten the ability of individuals to advance in the world, &controlled the majority of the markets
25 million arrived in US b/w 1865 &1915, 4X than 50 yrs earlier. 1870s &80s, most came from traditional sources: England, Ireland, &N Euro; By end of centry, major sources had shifted w/large #s of S &E Euros. In W, major source =Mexico &until Chinese Exclusion Act, Asia. Coming to escape poverty &oppression in homelands &also lured to US by expectations of new opportunities
Child Labor Laws
Ineffective because 60%of child workers were employed in ag, which was typically exempt from laws (worked 12 hr days). Kids in factorie, the laws set a minimum age of 12 yrs &max workday of 10hrs, standards that employers often ignored. Exhausted children were particularly suspceptible to injury while working at dangerous machine &were maimed &even killed in industrial accidents at an alarming rate
An organization of workers in a particular industry or trade, created to defend the interests of members through strikes or negotiations with employers.
A militant labor organizatoin in the anthracite coal region of PA; operated w/in the Ancient Order of Hibernians,, an Irsih fraternal industry, &sometimes used terrorist tactics. Attempted to intimidate coal operators thru violence & occassionally murder, &added to the growing perception that labor activism was motivated by dangerous radicals
National Labor Union
1st attempt to federate separate unions into a single nat org in 1866; was a polyglot association claiming 640,000 members, that included a variety of reform groups having little direct relationship w/labor. Disintegrated &disappeared after Panic of 1873. Excluded women workers b/c males said they were used to drive down their wages.
Railroad Strike of 1877
E RR had 10%wage cut &strikers disrupted rail service from Baltimore to St. Louis, destroyed equipment, &rioted in the streets of Pittsburgh &other cities. state militias called out &Hayes ordered fed troops to suppress the disorders in WV. Over 100 people died before the strike finally collapsed several weeks after it begun. 1st major ant labor conflict &illustrated how disputes b/w workers &employers could no longer be localized in increasingly nat economy &workers resentment to employers &fraility of labor movement
Knights of Labor
1st major effort to create a genuinely nat labor org; membership open to all who "toiled" &welcomed women. Were loosely organized w/o much central direction; met in local "assemblies"; program was similarly vague. They championed an 8hr day &abolition of child labor, the leaders were more interested in long-range reform of economy; hoped to replace wage system w/cooperative system where workers would control a large part of economy. At 1st, secreat fraternal org, but moved open in 1870s. 1886-RR strike failed; helped discredit org; disappeared in 1890
American Federation of Labor
Started in 1881 as the Fed of Organized Trade &Labor Unions but changed name 5yrs later; most imp &enduring group in nation, rejecting Knights' ideas of one big union for everyone; represented mainly skilled workers b/c generally hostile to organizing unskilled workers. Adopted contradictory policy for women; hostile to idea of women workers but sought=pay; concentrated on relationship b/w labor &management
Powerful leader of the AFL; accepted the basic premises of capitalism. Goal was simply to secure for the workers he represented a greater share of capitalism's material rewards. Rejected the idea of fundamental economic reform; opposed creation of a worker's party; generally hostile to any gov efforts to protect labor or improve working conditions
Union riot in Chicago led by anarchists; labor &radical leaders called a protest meeting at the place, and someone threw a bomb. Chicago officials arrested 8 anarchists, charged them w/murder, found guilty to throwing bomb. Was an alarming symbol of social chaos and radicalism
Code world in the public mind for terrorism and violence, even though most anarchists were relatively peaceful visionaries dreaming of a new social order. For next 30yrs, remained one of most frighteing conceps in American middle-class imagination; also constatn obstacle to goals of AFL &other labor orgs; Unions always vulnerable to these accusations b/c of violent strikes
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions; in 1892
Henry Clay Flick
Carnegie's chief lieutenant at the Homestead plant near Pittsburgh; decided Amalgamated had to go &repeatedly cut wages at Homestead for next 2yrs. At one point, he announced another wage cute &gave union 2days to accept it, so Amalgamated called for a strike. He abruptly shut down plant &called in 300 guards from Pinkerton Detective Agency to enable the company to hire nonunion workers.
Pinkerton Detective Agency
Well-known strikebreakers, &their mere presence was often enough to incite workers to violence. Approached plant on barges 7/6/1892; strikers prepared for them by pouring oil on water &setting it on fire, &met guards at docks w/guns & dynamite. 3 guards &10strikers killed &others injured after a battle. Pinkertons surrendered &escorted roughly out of town
In 1894 Eugene V. Debs organized American Railway Union (150000 members). Maintained a company town, & when the Depression hit, wages were cut 1/3, but rent &living expenses remained the same. Strikers overturned Pullman cars, paralyzed railway traffic from Chicago to Pacific Coast. Eventually, bayonet militia came in from Washington from Cleveland himself. Strikers were imprisoned w/o jury trials. He was charged since he interfered w/mailing service. The beginning of the end of company towns. People who helped keep law and order was Mayor Hopkins and Governor Altgeld
Led the militant American Railway Union; workers at the Pullam Co went on strike &persuaded them to support them, Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
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