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World History - Chapter 10 - Muslim Civilizations

World History - Chapter 10 - Muslim Civilizations
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Bedouins
small groups of nomadic people in Arabia
Muhammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
Mecca
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
Yathrib
Original name of the city of Medina
Hijra
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era.
Medina
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
Kaaba
a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
Quran
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
mosque
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship
hajj
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
jihad
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
Sharia
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Abu Bakr
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
caliph
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
Sunni
one of the two main branches of orthodox Islam
Shiite
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
Sufis
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
Umayyads
A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.
Abbasids
A dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750 to about 1250.
Baghdad
capital and largest city of Iraq
minaret
slender tower with balconies
sultan
the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
social mobility
The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.
Firdawsi
wrote the Shah Namah, or Book of Kings, that told the history of Persia
Omar Khayyam
Persian poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald's translation (1050-1123)
calligraphy
beautiful handwriting
Ibn Rushd
Muslim philosopher who blended Aristotle and Plato's views with Islam
Ibn Khaldun
Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city. (336)