Hewlett Packard uses Intel chips in its laptop computers. Through an amazing marketing effort, demand for HP laptops is 5% over what was projected. When they contact Intel to increase their chip order by 5% they are told that the price for the new chips will be double because Intel doesn't have ant excuess capacity. Because demand is strong, Intel builds a new plant to manufacture chips. The following year, demand for HP laptops is down 5%. Intel can't sell all of the chips from its new plant so it offers HP a 75% discount if they will buy more chips than they have already ordered. This is an example of _____?