Upgrade to remove ads
Psyc461 Exam 2(b)
Terms in this set (48)
Martin-Ordas & Call, 2011: How do the results of experiment 1 support the claim that memory for food location is not lost, but is temporarily unavailable?
Subjects' performance in the 1 and 2 hour RIs deteriorated substantially, but their performance in the 24 hour RI recovered to levels comparable to the 2 min RI
Martin-Ordas & Call, 2011: Sleep improves memory by facilitating memory consolidation. What is another potential way that
sleep can improve memory?
Sleep can also protect again interference which results in forgetting
Martin-Ordas & Call, 2011: What species were used in the current study? Did the species used affect the way the researchers drew their conclusions?
Four bonobos and four orangutans were tested
How do semantic and episodic memory differ?
What are the distinctive content features of episodic memory?
What memory structure is associated with episodic memory
How are episodic memory and prospective memory related?
Episodic memory is remembering specific personal events, people, etc in the passed while prospective memory is remembering to do something in the future, appointment, class, meet friend; both are personal memories to an individual person
How has tool use been used to test a prospective memory in animals?
Holland & Smulders, 2011: Is episodic memory the same as what-where-when memory? Why or why not?
Episodic memory is not completely the same as WWW memory because remembering where an object is hidden is not the same as remembering where you were and when; also participants were trying to remember WWW but not in episodic memory
Holland & Smulders, 2011: The authors found that participants made more errors identifying coin type than either location or day. Why would this be?
This may be because the coins are only seen for a brief amount of time during the hiding phase so they have less encoding time, or other times in their lives they have handled and seen these types of coins
Holland & Smulders, 2011:How did this study differ from those that test for what-where-when memory in animals?
In typical animal studies, the choice is between something valuable (food) and something valueless; in their version, both items had instrinsic value upon retrieval; also able to ask how they remembered to solve the taska and do not need to train humans just instruct them
Holland & Smulders, 2011:What does the author mean when they say actively encoding information could lead to
"semantic knowing, rather than remembering"?
He means that training animals to report on the three aspects of WWW memory may induce them to actively encode the information, and therefore know where they encountered what. It is not a matter of remembering, rather using the information they already know.
Holland & Smulders, 2011:How were findings inconsistent with the temporal decay theory of forgetting?
Findings showed the older information was remembered better than the newer information, also known as the primacy effect
How can "sun compass" be tested?
Test this by hiding the sun - desert ants; or change the circadian clock - homing pigeons
How can "pedometer" be tested?
Test this by changing the length of legs - ants
How to test cognitive maps?
Shortcuts, boltholes, foraging planning
What two key pieces of information are needed for most mechanisms of navigation?
distance and direction
Describe shortcuts in testing a cognitive map:
Train a particular path, then block the path and open others
Describe boltholes in testing a cognitive map:
Do ground burrowing species know the layouts of their holes? They are able to immediately go into closest bolt hole, so we can conclude they have an idea of their underground tunnels/holes
Describe foraging planning in testing cognitive map:
Planning efficient routes, bypassing available food
When do animals need to use interval timing?
need to use interval timing when they need to discriminate when and where resources are available; how long to stay at a resource
What is the scalar property of interval timing?
The variability of responses is roughly proportional to the peak time
What is the difference between numerosity, number, and numerals?
Describe one way to test relative numerosity
Pigeons were first trained to discriminate 36 red dots (peck and get food) and 36 blue dots (peck and no food) in a square. They were then tested to see if they could discriminate a square with both blue and red dots mixed together.
(Results: Pigeons would peck the square with the most red dots (much faster) than if there were more blue dots. They then tested again to see if they were using relative proportions and changed the 36 elements to 16. Pigeons still showed the same results)
How do analog magnitude and object file systems differ?
Ditz & Nieder, 2016: How did the authors ensure that the birds were using numerosity and not low-level visual features?
Ditz & Nieder, 2016: What was special about numerosity 1?
The performance curve had a much greater drop off than the other numerosities
Ditz & Nieder, 2016: How would the results change if the crows had a linear scaling of numerosities instead of logarithmic?
If there is linear coding, then they are skewed, or no longer completely symmetrical when converted to a log function; for logarithmic representation, there is a larger variance off to right than to the left
Ditz & Nieder, 2016: Why might crows require twice the numerical distance to perform as well as monkeys and humans on the same task?
There are possible perceptual difference, may have different numerical capacities (ex: song birds)
How does increasing the travel time influence the optimal time in a patch in the patch choice model?
How is delay gratification in children and chimpanzees similar?
How was commitment demonstrated with pigeons?
What types of things in their environment do animals need to discriminate?
Threatening or non-threatening animals, individual faces, male vs. female
What are three types of concept learning?
Associative, relational, analogical
Describe the go/no go task:
Go when reinforced, don't go when not reinforced; can be used to test discrimination abilities
what two criteria are needed to infer categorization?
Mueller et al., 2015: What was the purpose of using partial faces as stimuli, as opposed to the whole face?
To eliminate "simple" features used ex/ teeth smiling face; takes away certain cues by only using part of face and this means they are not relying on only one thing
Mueller et al., 2015: What evidence did the authors provide to suggest that angry faces are aversive?
Dogs with happy faces learned discrimination more quickly than dogs with angry faces
Mueller et al., 2015: Are dogs recognizing emotions, emotional expressions, or something else?
Emotional expressions, however we don't know whether animals have recognition of emotion - or just association
Mueller et al., 2015:How might the demographics of the stimuli impact the dog's ability to read emotions?
Experiences can cause emotions to be expressed or interpreted differently, they may already have associations from these experiences
Mueller et al., 2015:How could you test the role of experience, natural selection, and artificial selection in dogs' ability to discriminate emotional expressions?
Test puppy with little to no experience with human interaction, test animals with different experiences, or test lab dog vs wild/feral dog vs wolves
What is an emotional support animal?
An animal that one needs to be with in order to feel comfortable; you cannot bring this animal everywhere with you
What is a mobility assistance dog?
Service dog that aids invidual in getting up, sitting down, reaching for things, etc.
What is a therapy or comfort dog?
A dog with basic obedience, most organizations train them to do some sort of public access, transportation, training around medical equipment, and must be used to being around other dogs
What is a crisis response dog?
Dog trained in search and seek aspects, trained to stay calm in high stress environments, need stamina, patientce, and ability to work around damaged things ex/in case of tornado
What are the "special skills" for crisis response dogs?
Travel, public access, work for long period of time, protective gear, loud sounds and unusual noises, stress relievers with disaster scene, working in mass groups of people
What are the certification requirements for crisis response dogs?
on scene ongoing suport, stress management techniques and compassion fatigue, event specific interventions, spiritual and mental health support services, demobilization, debriefing, defusing, adaptability and flexibility resources, re-entry support
Certification requirements for human partner of crisis response dog?
Training in animal behavior, critical incident stress management (CISM), crisis response, trauma situations/role play, incident command system (ICS), crisis mental health
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Psychology Studies Notecards 3.1-3.9
PSY 433 test 2
Memory and Learning: Exam 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
461 Discussion Questions
Sports Sociology Chapter 12
Sociology of Sport exam 3