38 terms

history 222 exam 2 kara patton


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buying on margin
practice that contributed to inflated stock prices in the 1920s; required only 10% downpayment to purchase stock
Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)
Party: Republican
Major Events: Great Depression strikes; Promoted attitude of rugged individualism
US president blamed for Depression; did "Too Little, Too Late"
Bonus march, 1932
WWI vets were promised a bonus in 1945. Since many were suffering in the Depression, there was a bill proposed in the Senate to pay the bonus immediately. Thousands of vets and their families gathered in a huge Hooverville (shanty town) in DC to support bill. The bill fails, vets decided to maintain their protest. Hoover sends Douglas MacArthur to clear them out with army. MacArthur overreacts, burns down the Hooverville destroying all the vets possessions, kills two people & kills Hoover's chances in 1932 election
CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps)
was a work relief program that gave millions of young men employment on environmental projects during the Great Depression. Considered by many to be one of the most successful of Roosevelt's New Deal programs, the CCC planted more than three billion trees and constructed trails and shelters in more than 800 parks nationwide during its nine years of existence.
Social Security Act
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Huey Long
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc.
he believe that Roosevelt's "New Deal" policies did not do enough to alleviate the issues of the poor.
Works Progress Administration
New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings. The first major legislation that Roosevelt and Congress passed in the Second New Deal
Second New Deal
(1935) a new set of programs in the spring of 1935 including additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs. passed and signed the Social Security Act, Works Progress Administration, and Wagner Act.
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition. Mussolini founded the ideology of fascism.
Nazi Germany/Hitler
Germany as ruled by Hitler and the Nazi Party from 1933 to 1945, a fascist state dedicated to extreme nationalism, territorial expansion, and the purification of the German state.
4 freedoms
he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy:
Freedom of speech
Freedom of worship
Freedom from want
Freedom from fear
Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war
Lend-Lease Act
1941 law that authorized the president to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
Pearl Harbor
United States military base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman. 120,000 total dead
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Harry Truman
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Cold War
the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies. The Cold War was waged on political, economic, and propaganda fronts and had only limited recourse to weapons. 1947-1991
Iron Curtain
term coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe an imaginary line dividing Communist countries in the Soviet bloc from countries in Western Europe during the Cold War
Containment Policy
Policy introduced by Harry S. Truman after WWII that said the duty of the U.S. was to stop the spread of Totalitarianism; Defined the foreign policy for the period after WWII until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989
Joseph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
Joseph McCarthy/McCarthyism
period of time in American history that saw Wisconsin rep Sen. Joseph McCarthy produce a series of investigations and hearings during the 1950s in an effort to expose supposed communist infiltration of various areas of the U.S. government.
In December 1954, the Senate voted to censure him for his conduct and to strip him of his privileges
Richard Nixon (1969-1974)
most hard-lined anti-communist presidents, Richard Nixon. In his "only Nixon could go to China" trip, Nixon was the first US president to visit that communist country.
1968 and 1972; Republican; Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign
Iran in cold war
an extremely tense situation of the early Cold War, the Soviet Union announces that its troops in Iran will be withdrawn within six weeks. The Iranian crisis was one of the first tests of power between the United States and the Soviet Union in the postwar world.
John Foster Dulles
As Eisenhower's Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine. advocated for an aggressive stance on communism throughout the world.
Ho Cho Minh and vietnam
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
Eisenhower Doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
military-industrial complex
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
civil rights
the rights of full citizenship and equality under the law.The civil rights movement was a struggle for social justice that took place mainly during the 1950s and 1960s for blacks to gain equal rights under the law in the United States.
Little Rock Nine
In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
Brown v. Board of Education
Supreme Court decision that overturned the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision (1896); led by Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Court ruled that "separate but equal" schools for blacks were inherently unequal and thus unconstitutional. The decision energized the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s.
An American activist and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He helped the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience. He led the Montgomery Bus Boycott as well as his March on Washington and his "I have a Dream" Speech. He was assassinated on April 4, 1968. He was significant b/c he was a major reason for such a push for civil rights.
Malcolm X
One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.
civil rights act of 1957
*First civil rights act since Reconstruction
*Stimulated by Brown v. Board of Edu. of Topeka and civil rights activism
*Created a panel to ensure that voting rights of African Americans were not violated
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
Voting Rights Act of 1965
signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote as guaranteed under the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.