92 terms

History 222 Kara Patton Exam 2

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stock market: wall street
On September 3, the Dow Jones Industrial Average of major stocks had reached an all-time high of 381. An average investor who bought $1,000 worth of such stocks at the time of Hoover's election (November 1928) would have doubled his or her money in
less than a year. Millions of people did invest in the boom market of 1928—and millions lost their money in October 1929, when it collapsed.
october 29, 1929
Also known as Black Tuesday, on this date the stock market crashed in New York. This crash led to the Great Depression
buying on margin
paying a small percentage of a stock's price as a down payment and borrowing the rest
Herbert Hoover
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
Bonus march, 1932
WWI vets were promised a bonus in 1945. Since many were suffering in the Depression, there was a bill proposed in the Senate to pay the bonus immediately. Thousands of vets and their families gathered in a huge Hooverville (shanty town) in DC to support bill. The bill fails, vets decided to maintain their protest. Hoover sends Douglas MacArthur to clear them out with army. MacArthur overreacts, burns down the Hooverville destroying all the vets possessions, kills two people & kills Hoover's chances in 1932 election
Relief, Recovery, Reform
Three components of the New Deal. The first "R" was the effort to help the one-third of the population that was hardest hit by the depression, & included social security and unemployment insurance. The second "R" was the effort in numerous programs to restore the economy to normal health, achieved by 1937. Finally, the third "R" let government intervention stabilize the economy by balancing the interests of farmers, business and labor. There was no major anti-trust program.
Hundred Days
the special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months: 100 days. His specific priorities were getting americans back to work, protecting their savings, creating prosperity, providing relief for sick/elderly, and getting industry and agriculture back on its feet.
Repeal of Prohibition
*(21st amendment) The cancellation of prohibition, enacted because people were evading the law by buying liquor in speakeasies. It was repealed under FDR's presidency.
Civilian Conservation Corps
A major public works program in the United States during the Great Depression. It was implemented during the Hundred Days.The Civilian Conservation Corps allowed unemployed men to work for six months on conservation projects such as planting trees, preventing soil erosion, and combating forest fires. Workers lived in militarized camps across the country and made $30 per month. By the end of the program in 1942, the CCC had employed 2.5 million men.
Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Social Security Act of 1935
Provided old-age pension (retirement), and a program of unemployment insurance (temporary aid to help people who lose jobs to find a new job), and federal welfare program (aid for very poor). Most famous and important legacy of New Deal. Has resulted (along with Medicare) with drastic reduction in poverty among elderly in the US
Huey Long
"Kingfish" Rep. senator of LA; pushed "Share Our Wealth" program and make "Every Man a King' at the expense of the wealthy; assassinated
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
established minimum living standards for workers engaged in interstate commerce, including provision of a federal minimum wage
Drought/Dust Bowl
severe drought ruined crops in the Great Plains. Region became known as the dust bowl, as poor farming practice coupled with high winds blew away millions of tons of dried topsoiled. Many people fled the area by jumping on freight trains.
Works Progress Administration
May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
facism
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and has no tolerance for opposition
Benito Mussolini
(1883-1945) Fascist Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
nazi's and germany
The Nazi party rose to power in Germany in 1933 under Adolf Hitler. Nazism was the german brand of fascism and that was how the country was ruled (totalitarian state). The nazis advocated antisemitism and a "perfect aryan race" that they enforced through stripping Jews and "undesirables" of their rights and implementing the holocaust.
Good Neighbor Policy, 1933
Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy.
Neutrality Acts
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they (there was 4) were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)
In 1936 the army revolted and civil war began- between the Rebels and Loyalists. Republicans were backed by most ordinary Spaniards and the Soviet Union. Rebels were backed by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. This ended in 1939 with a victory for the Rebels. The nazis/italians used spain as a training ground for their new bombs and weapons.
Francisco Franco
Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 after the Spanish Civil War and who ruled as a dictator until his death (1892-1975). Was brought to power with the help of fascist italy and germany.
Appeasement
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.
Quarantine Speech (1937)
An important speech delivered by Franklin Roosevelt in which he called for "positive endeavors" to "quarantine" land-hungry dictators, presumably through economic embargoes. The speech shit on isolationist politicians.
Four Freedoms Speech (1941)
Technically Franklin Roosevelt's 1941 State of the Union address in which he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy:
Freedom of speech and expression
Freedom of worship
Freedom from want
Freedom from fear
Atlantic Charter (1941)
Pledge signed by US president FDR and British PM Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war. Also to set up new international organization to mediate disputes between nations that would come in the form of the United Nations. Similar to Wilson's 14 Points after WWI, but this time it was much more successful.
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
The program under which the US supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945.
Holocaust
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled. It resulted in the death of millions throughout german concentration camps.
Pearl Harbor, 1941
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Battle of Midway (1942)
Pivotal victory in the war; Battle from June 3-6 in which Japan sought to conquer Midway Island, northwest of Honolulu; Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, a high grade naval strategist, directed a small carrier force under Admiral Raymond A. Spruance against the invading Japanese fleet, the fighting was all done by aircraft and the japanese stopped fighting after losing four vital carriers
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American General who began in North Africa and became the Commander of Allied forces in Europe. He would go on to become the president of america in 1953
D-Day Invasion
Invasion led Dwight D. Eisenhower, started in Normandy, on june 6th 1944, was a success, turning point of WWII, first time allied forces successfully set foot in europe.
Battle of the Bulge (1944)
On December 16, 1944, Hitler ordered the last of his reserves, 250,000 troops to attack the American position in the Forest of Ardennes. The Germans drove a bulge deep into the Allied line; however, the Allies stopped the Germans last ditch counterattack and advanced to the Rhine.
Douglas MacArthur
(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Two Japanese cities on which the U.S. dropped the atomic bombs to end World War II. done in retaliation to pearl harbor.
Manhattan Project
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States. (oppenheimer was the main leader behind it- "i am become death")
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
united nations
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations, but america joined this time.
G.I. Bill, 1944
The G. I. Bill of Rights or Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G. I.s) as well as one-year of unemployment compensation. It also provided loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses. Considered an extremely successful government program to both help veterans and boost the US economy.
Baby Boom
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
Harry Truman
33rd President of the United States. Led the U.S. to victory in WWII making the ultimate decision to use atomic weapons for the first time. Shaped U.S. foreign policy regarding the Soviet Union after the war.
Committee on Civil Rights (1946)
Created by Truman by bypassing the southern Democrats in key seats in Congress and established this committee to challenge racial discrimination in 1946
22nd Amendment (1951)
the president is limited to two terms or a total of 10 years in office. This was done in reference to FDR under Truman's presidency
Fair Deal
An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
Cold War (1945-1991)
A political hostility that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years. Ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1991.
Soviet Union
A Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other satellite nations, that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Iron Curtain
A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region. this "curtain" seperated the democratic nations from the communist ones.
Winston Churchill
A noted British prime minister who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Containment Policy
Established by the Truman administration in 1947 to contain Soviet influence to what it was at the end of World War II. Done out of the fear of the expansion of communism.
Truman Doctrine
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
NSC-68 (1950)
Blueprint for the Cold War in which the National Security Council (made up of President's top advisors on military and security matters) recommendation to quadruple defense spending for fighting communism and rapidly expand peacetime armed forces to address Cold War tensions; reflected a new militarization of American foreign policy ("Military Industrial Complex") and triggered the arms race
People's Republic of China
Communist government of mainland China; proclaimed in 1949 following military success of Mao Zedong over forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang.
Joseph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition. Was an ally in WWII.
Joseph McCarthy
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
Richard Nixon
1968 and 1972; Republican; Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign
Iran in the Cold War
an extremely tense situation of the early Cold War, the Soviet Union announces that its troops in Iran will be withdrawn within six weeks. The Iranian crisis was one of the first tests of power between the United States and the Soviet Union in the postwar world.
John Foster Dulles
As Eisenhower's Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine. advocated for an aggressive stance on communism throughout the world.
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
Suez Canal Crisis (1956)
Egypt's dictator, Abdul Gamal Nasser, a former army officer who had led the coup that overthrew King Farouk, nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, and was attacked by British, French and Israeli forces. The U.S. intervened on behalf of Egypt. Damaged Britain and France's standing as world powers.
Eisenhower Doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
military-industrial complex
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
OPEC
An international oil cartel originally formed in 1960. Represents the majority of all oil produced in the world. Attempts to limit production to raise prices. It's long name is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
Beatniks
A United States youth subculture of the 1950s that rebelled against the mundane horrors of middle class life.
NAACP
Interracial organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve political and civil rights for African Americans. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Little Rock Crisis
1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
Brown vs. Board of Education (1954)
Supreme Court decision that overturned the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision (1896); led by Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Court ruled that "separate but equal" schools for blacks were inherently unequal and thus unconstitutional. The decision energized the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s.
Earl Warren
Chief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes.
Rosa Parks
Secretary of NAACP, spurred the Montgomery Bus Boycott by refusing to give up her seat on the bus to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
civil rights act of 1957
1957
*First civil rights act since Reconstruction
*Stimulated by Brown v. Board of Edu. of Topeka and civil rights activism
*Created a panel to ensure that voting rights of African Americans were not violated
Civil Rights Commission
1957; set up by the Civil Rights Act and was made to investigate violations of civil rights and authorized federal injunctions to protect voting rights
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
1957; An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
Sit-ins
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
I have a dream speech
A speech given by Martin Luther King, Jr. at the demonstration of freedom in 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial. It was an event related to the civil rights movement of the 1960's to unify citizens in accepting diversity and eliminating discrimination against African-Americans
malcom x
One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it brought jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Black Panthers
a militant African-American political organization formed in 1965 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to fight police brutality and to provide services in the ghetto, they advocated for violence if necessary.
JFK and Vietnam
believed US could shape developing countries, in Vietnam wanted to save south and help through stages of economic growth, he didn't want to lose so he escalated war effort
Peace Corps, 1961
JFK called for volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by fighting poverty in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The work is generally related to social and economic development. Volunteers went abroad to work with governments, schools, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, entrepreneurs in education, hunger, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment.
Bay of Pigs, 1961
The Bay of Pigs was a failed invasion of Cuba, planned under Eisenhower, implemented under JFK. Cuban exiles living in the US were trained by the CIA and landed in Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. They believed it would start an uprising of the Cuban people against Castro. That didn't happen, and the event was a huge embarrassment for the US and pushed Castro to seek more help from the USSR, leading directly to the Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
Warren Commission
Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assasination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.
LBJ
Vise President to JFK,1963-1969, deomcrat, passed civil rights act of 64, included a program called Great Society, presidency based on vietnam war, passed Gulf of Tonkin and said "to take any measures nessesary",decided to escalate American involvement in Vietnam, proved to be extremely unpopular
War on Poverty
Lyndon Johnson declared war on poverty in his 1964 State of the Union address. A new Office of Economic Opportunity oversaw a variety of programs to help the poor, including the Job Corps and Head Start.
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Robert Kennedy
He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals. He was ultimately assassinated in 1968, leaving Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans. Brother to JFK.
New Left
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
Counterculture
A culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established culture.
Kent State
Ohio college where an anti-war protest got way out of hand, the Nat'l Guard was called in and killed 3 students (innocent & unarmed,wounded 9) in indiscriminate fire of M-1 rifles
Henry Kissinger
The main negotiator of the peace treaty with the North Vietnamese; secretary of state during Nixon's presidency (1970s).
My Lai
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred about 200 innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
Cambodia
Nixon widened the Vietnam War by moving troops into this country to try and remove enemy camps. Ended up as communist Indochina.